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Befreiung von Sklaverei Bildung Busse Covid- 19; RRL

Busssakrament- von Uwe Rosenkranz

Römer

Jona 3,8–10

8 And let men and beasts be covered with sackcloth, and cry to the Lord with all their strength, and let them turn every one from his evil way, and from the iniquity that is in their hands. 9 Who can tell if God will turn, and forgive: and will turn away from his fierce anger, and we shall not perish? 10 And God saw their works, that they were turned from their evil way: and God had mercy with regard to the evil which he had said that he would do to them, and he did it not.

Markus 1,15

And saying: The time is accomplished and the kingdom of God is at hand. Repent and believe the gospel:

REPENT [Heb. niphal of nāḥam (hithpael in Nu. 23:19)]; NEB also CHANGE ONE’S MIND, THINK BETTER, etc.; [šûḇ] (1 K. 8:47f par 2 Ch. 6:37f.Ps. 7:12 [MT 13]; 78:34Isa. 1:27Jer. 5:39:5 [MT 4]; 34:15Ezk. 14:618:30Zec. 1:6); NEB also TURN (BACK, AWAY), LEARN ONE’S LESSON, COME BACK, etc.; [Gk. metanoéō, metamélomai (Mt. 21:293227:3), metánoia (2 Tim. 2:25He. 12:17)]; AV also REPENTANCE (metánoia); NEB also BE SORRY, CHANGE ONE’S MIND, BE SEIZED WITH REMORSE, etc.; REPENTANCE; REPENTING [Gk. metánoia]; NEB also CHANGE OF HEART.

“Repent” in contemporary English means either (1) to regret (a thought, attitude, or act), or, (2) much more frequently, to regret and change from one attitude or allegiance to another. To get an accurate idea of the precise meaning of this highly important word in the Bible, it is necessary to consider the original Hebrew and Greek terms that it translates. The psychological elements of repentance should be considered in the light of the general teaching of Scripture.

I. OT Terms

II. NT Terms

III. Psychological Elements

A. Intellect

B. Emotions

C. Will

IV. Relation to Salvation

Medien
Schlüsselstellen
And let men and beasts be covered with sackcloth, and cry to the Lord with all their strength, and let them turn every one from his evil way, and from the iniquity that is in their hands. Who can tell if God will turn, and forgive: and will turn away from his fierce anger, and we shall not perish?…
And saying: The time is accomplished and the kingdom of God is at hand. Repent and believe the gospel:
Wortbedeutungen
seine Haltung ändern (Buße tun)  Verb. seine Haltung (in Herz und Geist) ändern, sodass vormalige Denkweisen aufgegeben werden und ein neues Wesen mit neuen Verhaltensweisen entsteht, das frühere Denk- und Verhaltensweisen bedauert.
Buße tun  Verb. Reue fühlen für; Bedauern empfinden für; zerknirscht sein über.
ReueSubstantiv. Gewissensbisse für vergangenes Verhalten.

Matthäus 20,17–28,20

17 And Jesus going up to Jerusalem, took the twelve disciples apart and said to them: 18 Behold we go up to Jerusalem, and the Son of man shall be betrayed to the chief priests and the scribes: and they shall condemn him to death. 19 And shall deliver him to the Gentiles to be mocked and scourged and crucified: and the third day he shall rise again. 20 Then came to him the mother of the sons of Zebedee with her sons, adoring and asking something of him. 21 Who said to her: What wilt thou? She saith to him: say that these my two sons may sit, the one on thy right hand, and the other on thy left, in thy kingdom. 22 And Jesus answering, said: You know not what you ask. Can you drink the chalice that I shall drink? They say to him: We can. 23 He saith to them: My chalice indeed you shall drink; but to sit on my right or left hand is not mine to give to you, but to them for whom it is prepared by my Father. 24 And the ten, hearing it, were moved with indignation against the two brethren. 25 But Jesus called them to him and said: You know that the princes of the Gentiles lord it over them; and that they that are the greater, exercise power upon them. 26 It shall not be so among you: but whosoever is the greater among you, let him be your minister. 27 And he that will be first among you shall be your servant. 28 Even as the Son of man is not come to be ministered unto, but to minister and to give his life a redemption for many. 29 And when they went out from Jericho, a great multitude followed him. 30 And behold two blind men sitting by the way side heard that Jesus passed by. And they cried out, saying: O Lord, thou son of David, have mercy on us. 31 And the multitude rebuked them that they should hold their peace. But they cried out the more, saying: O Lord, thou son of David, have mercy on us. 32 And Jesus stood and called them and said: What will ye that I do to you? 33 They say to him: Lord, that our eyes be opened. 34 And Jesus having compassion on them, touched their eyes. And immediately they saw and followed him. 1 And when they drew nigh to Jerusalem and were come to Bethphage, unto mount Olivet, then Jesus sent two disciples, 2 Saying to them: Go ye into the village that is over against you: and immediately you shall find an ass tied and a colt with her. Loose them and bring them to me. 3 And if any man shall say anything to you, say ye that the Lord hath need of them. And forthwith he will let them go. 4 Now all this was done that it might be fulfilled which was spoken by the prophet, saying: 5 Tell ye the daughter of Sion: Behold thy king cometh to thee, meek and sitting upon an ass and a colt, the foal of her that is used to the yoke. 6 And the disciples going, did as Jesus commanded them. 7 And they brought the ass and the colt and laid their garments upon them and made him sit thereon. 8 And a very great multitude spread their garments in the way: and others cut boughs from the trees and strewed them in the way. 9 And the multitudes that went before and that followed cried, saying: Hosanna to the son of David: Blessed is he that cometh in the name of the Lord: Hosanna in the highest. 10 And when he was come into Jerusalem, the whole city was moved, saying: Who is this? 11 And the people said: This is Jesus, the prophet from Nazareth of Galilee. 12 And Jesus went into the temple of God and cast out all them that sold and bought in the temple and overthrew the tables of the money changers and the chairs of them that sold doves. 13 And he saith to them: It is written, My house shall be called the house of prayer; but you have made it a den of thieves. 14 And there came to him the blind and the lame in the temple: and he healed them. 15 And the chief priests and scribes, seeing the wonderful things that he did and the children crying in the temple and saying: Hosanna to the son of David, were moved with indignation, 16 And said to him: Hearest thou what these say? And Jesus said to them: Yea, have you never read: Out of the mouth of infants and of sucklings thou hast perfected praise? 17 And leaving them, he went out of the city into Bethania and remained here. 18 And in the morning, returning into the city, he was hungry. 19 And seeing a certain fig tree by the way side, he came to it and found nothing on it but leaves only. And he saith to it: May no fruit grow on thee henceforward for ever. And immediately the fig tree withered away. 20 And the disciples seeing it wondered, saying: How is it presently withered away? 21 And Jesus answering, said to them: Amen, I say to you, if you shall have faith and stagger not, not only this of the fig tree shall you do, but also if you shall say to this mountain, Take up and cast thyself into the sea, it shall be done. 22 And all things whatsoever you shall ask in prayer believing, you shall receive. 23 And when he was come into the temple, there came to him, as he was teaching, the chief priests and ancients of the people, saying: By what authority dost thou these things? And who hath given thee this authority? 24 Jesus answering, said to them: I also will ask you one word, which if you shall tell me, I will also tell you by what authority I do these things. 25 The baptism of John, whence was it? From heaven or from men? But they thought within themselves, saying: 26 If we shall say, from heaven, he will say to us: Why then did you not believe him? But if we shall say, from men, we are afraid of the multitude: for all held John as a prophet. 27 And answering Jesus, they said: We know not. He also said to them: Neither do I tell you by what authority I do these things. 28 But what think you? A certain man had two sons: and coming to the first, he said: Son, go work to day in my vineyard. 29 And he answering, said: I will not. But afterwards, being moved with repentance, he went. 30 And coming to the other, he said in like manner. And he answering said: I go, Sir. And he went not. 31 Which of the two did the father’s will? They say to him: The first. Jesus saith to them: Amen I say to you that the publicans and the harlots shall go into the kingdom of God before you. 32 For John came to you in the way of justice: and you did not believe him. But the publicans and the harlots believed him: but you, seeing it, did not even afterwards repent, that you might believe him. 33 Hear ye another parable. There was a man, an householder, who planted a vineyard and made a hedge round about it and dug in it a press and built a tower and let it out to husbandmen and went into a strange country. 34 And when the time of the fruits drew nigh, he sent his servants to the husbandmen that they might receive the fruits thereof. 35 And the husbandmen laying hands on his servants, beat one and killed another and stoned another. 36 Again he sent other servants, more than the former; and they did to them in like manner. 37 And last of all he sent to them his son, saying: They will reverence my son. 38 But the husbandmen seeing the son, said among themselves: This is the heir: come, let us kill him, and we shall have his inheritance. 39 And taking him, they cast him forth out of the vineyard and killed him. 40 When therefore the lord of the vineyard shall come, what will he do to those husbandmen? 41 They say to him: He will bring those evil men to an evil end and let out his vineyard to other husbandmen that shall render him the fruit in due season. 42 Jesus saith to them: Have you never read in the Scriptures: The stone which the builders rejected, the same is become the head of the corner? By the Lord this has been done; and it is wonderful in our eyes. 43 Therefore I say to you that the kingdom of God shall be taken from you and shall be given to a nation yielding the fruits thereof. 44 And whosoever shall fall on this stone shall be broken: but on whomsoever it shall fall, it shall grind him to powder. 45 And when the chief priests and Pharisees had heard his parables, they knew that he spoke of them. 46 And seeking to lay hands on him, they feared the multitudes, because they held him as a prophet. 1 And Jesus answering, spoke again in parables to them, saying: 2 The kingdom of heaven is likened to a king who made a marriage for his son. 3 And he sent his servants to call them that were invited to the marriage: and they would not come. 4 Again he sent other servants, saying: Tell them that were invited, Behold, I have prepared my dinner: my beeves and fatlings are killed, and all things are ready. Come ye to the marriage. 5 But they neglected and went their ways, one to his farm and another to his merchandise. 6 And the rest laid hands on his servants and, having treated them contumeliously, put them to death. 7 But when the king had heard of it, he was angry: and sending his armies, he destroyed those murderers and burnt their city. 8 Then he saith to his servants: The marriage indeed is ready; but they that were invited were not worthy. 9 Go ye therefore into the highways; and as many as you shall find, call to the marriage. 10 And his servants going forth into the ways, gathered together all that they found, both bad and good: and the marriage was filled with guests. 11 And the king went in to see the guests: and he saw there a man who had not on a wedding garment. 12 And he saith to him: Friend, how camest thou in hither not having on a wedding garment? But he was silent. 13 Then the king said to the waiters: Bind his hands and feet, and cast him into the exterior darkness. There shall be weeping and gnashing of teeth. 14 For many are called, but few are chosen. 15 Then the Pharisees going, consulted among themselves how to insnare him in his speech. 16 And they sent to him their disciples with the Herodians, saying: Master, we know that thou art a true speaker and teachest the way of God in truth. Neither carest thou for any man: for thou dost not regard the person of men. 17 Tell us therefore what dost thou think? Is it lawful to give tribute to Caesar, or not? 18 But Jesus knowing their wickedness, said: Why do you tempt me, ye hypocrites? 19 Shew me the coin of the tribute. And they offered him a penny. 20 And Jesus saith to them: Whose image and inscription is this? 21 They say to him: Caesar’s. Then he saith to them: Render therefore to Caesar the things that are Caesar’s; and to God, the things that are God’s. 22 And hearing this, they wondered and, leaving him, went their ways. 23 That day there came to him the Sadducees, who say there is no resurrection; and asked him, 24 Saying: Master, Moses said: If a man die having no son, his brother shall marry his wife and raise up issue to his brother. 25 Now there were with us seven brethren: and the first having married a wife, died; and not having issue, left his wife to his brother. 26 In like manner the second and the third and so on, to the seventh. 27 And last of all the woman died also. 28 At the resurrection therefore, whose wife of the seven shall she be? For they all had her. 29 And Jesus answering, said to them: You err, not knowing the Scriptures nor the power of God. 30 For in the resurrection they shall neither marry nor be married, but shall be as the angels of God in heaven. 31 And concerning the resurrection of the dead, have you not read that which was spoken by God, saying to you: 32 I am the God of Abraham and the God of Isaac and the God of Jacob? He is not the God of the dead but of the living. 33 And the multitudes hearing it were in admiration at his doctrine. 34 But the Pharisees, hearing that he had silenced the Sadducees, came together. 35 And one of them, a doctor of the law, asked him, tempting him: 36 Master, which is the great commandment in the law? 37 Jesus said to him: Thou shalt love the Lord thy God with thy whole heart and with thy whole soul and with thy whole mind. 38 This is the greatest and the first commandment. 39 And the second is like to this: Thou shalt love thy neighbour as thyself. 40 On these two commandments dependeth the whole law and the prophets. 41 And the Pharisees being gathered together, Jesus asked them, 42 Saying: What think you of Christ? Whose son is he? They say to him: David’s. 43 He saith to them: How then doth David in spirit call him Lord, saying: 44 The Lord said to my Lord: Sit on my right hand, until I make thy enemies thy footstool? 45 If David then call him Lord, how is he his son? 46 And no man was able to answer him a word: neither durst any man from that day forth ask him any more questions. 1 Then Jesus spoke to the multitudes and to his disciples, 2 Saying: The scribes and the Pharisees have sitten on the chair of Moses. 3 All things therefore whatsoever they shall say to you, observe and do: but according to their works do ye not. For they say, and do not. 4 For they bind heavy and insupportable burdens and lay them on men’s shoulders: but with a finger of their own they will not move them. 5 And all their works they do for to be seen of men. For they make their phylacteries broad and enlarge their fringes. 6 And they love the first places at feasts and the first chairs in the synagogues, 7 And salutations in the market place, and to be called by men, Rabbi. 8 But be not you called Rabbi. For one is your master: and all you are brethren. 9 And call none your father upon earth; for one is your father, who is in heaven. 10 Neither be ye called masters: for one is your master, Christ. 11 He that is the greatest among you shall be your servant. 12 And whosoever shall exalt himself shall be humbled: and he that shall humble himself shall be exalted. 13 But woe to you, scribes and Pharisees, hypocrites, because you shut the kingdom of heaven against men: for you yourselves do not enter in and those that are going in, you suffer not to enter. 14 Woe to you scribes and Pharisees, hypocrites, because you devour the houses of widows, praying long prayers. For this you shall receive the greater judgment. 15 Woe to you, scribes and Pharisees, hypocrites, because you go round about the sea and the land to make one proselyte. And when he is made, you make him the child of hell twofold more than yourselves. 16 Woe to you, blind guides, that say, Whosoever shall swear by the temple, it is nothing; but he that shall swear by the gold of the temple is a debtor. 17 Ye foolish and blind: for whether is greater, the gold or the temple that sanctifieth the gold? 18 And whosoever shall swear by the altar, it is nothing; but whosoever shall swear by the gift that is upon it is a debtor. 19 Ye foolish and blind: for whether is greater, the gift or the altar that sanctifieth the gift? 20 He therefore that sweareth by the altar sweareth by it and by all things that are upon it. 21 And whosoever shall swear by the temple sweareth by it and by him that dwelleth in it. 22 And he that sweareth by heaven sweareth by the throne of God

Markus 1,2–10,22

2 As it is written in Isaias the prophet: Behold I send my angel before thy face, who shall prepare the way before thee. 3 A voice of one crying in the desert: Prepare ye the way of the Lord; make straight his paths. 4 John was in the desert, baptizing and preaching the baptism of penance, unto remission of sins. 5 And there went out to him all the country of Judea and all they of Jerusalem and were baptized by him in the river of Jordan, confessing their sins. 6 And John was clothed camel’s hair, and a leathern girdle about his loins: and he ate locusts and wild honey. 7 And he preached, saying: There cometh after me one mightier than I, the latchet of whose shoes I am not worthy to stoop down and loose. 8 I have baptized you with water: but he shall baptize you with the Holy Ghost. 9 And it came to pass, in those days, Jesus came from Nazareth of Galilee and was baptized by John in Jordan. 10 And forthwith coming up out of the water, he saw the heavens open and the Spirit as a dove descending and remaining on him. 11 And there came a voice from heaven: Thou art my beloved Son; in thee I am well pleased. 12 And immediately the Spirit drove him out into the desert. 13 And he was in the desert forty days and forty nights, and was tempted by Satan. And he was with beasts: and the angels ministered to him. 14 And after that John was delivered up, Jesus came in Galilee, preaching the gospel of the kingdom of God, 15 And saying: The time is accomplished and the kingdom of God is at hand. Repent and believe the gospel: 16 And passing by the sea of Galilee, he saw Simon and Andrew his brother, casting nets into the sea for they were fishermen. 17 And Jesus said to them: Come after me; and I will make you to become fishers of men. 18 And immediately leaving their nets, they followed him. 19 And going on from thence a little farther, he saw James the son of Zebedee and John his brother, who also were mending their nets in the ship: 20 And forthwith he called them. And leaving their father Zebedee in the ship with his hired men, they followed him. 21 And they entered into Capharnaum: and forthwith upon the sabbath days going into the synagogue, he taught them. 22 And they were astonished at his doctrine. For he was teaching them as one having power, and not as the scribes. 23 And there was in their synagogue a man with an unclean spirit; and he cried out, 24 Saying: What have we to do with thee, Jesus of Nazareth? Art thou come to destroy us? I know who thou art, the Holy One of God. 25 And Jesus threatened him, saying: Speak no more, and go out of the man. 26 And the unclean spirit, tearing him and crying out with a loud voice, went out of him. 27 And they were all amazed insomuch that they questioned among themselves, saying: What thing is this? What is this new doctrine? For with power he commandeth even the unclean spirits: and they obey him. 28 And the fame of him was spread forthwith into all the country of Galilee. 29 And immediately going out of the synagogue they came into the house of Simon and Andrew, with James and John. 30 And Simon’s wife’s mother lay in a fit of a fever: and forthwith they tell him of her. 31 And coming to her, he lifted her up, taking her by the hand; and immediately the fever left her, and she ministered unto them. 32 And when it was evening, after sunset, they brought to him all that were ill and that were possessed with devils. 33 And all the city was gathered together at the door. 34 And he healed many that were troubled with divers diseases. And he cast out many devils: and he suffered them not to speak, because they knew him. 35 And rising very early, going out, he went into a desert place: and there he prayed. 36 And Simon and they that were with him followed after him. 37 And when they had found him, they said to him: All seek for thee. 38 And he saith to them: Let us go into the neighbouring towns and cities, that I may preach there also; for to this purpose am I come. 39 And he was preaching in their synagogues and in all Galilee and casting out devils. 40 And there came a leper to him, beseeching him and kneeling down, said to him: If thou wilt thou canst make me clean. 41 And Jesus, having compassion on him, stretched forth his hand and touching him saith to him: I will. Be thou made clean. 42 And when he had spoken, immediately the leprosy departed from him: and he was made clean. 43 And he strictly charged him and forthwith sent him away. 44 And he saith to him: See thou tell no one; but go, shew thyself to the high priest and offer for thy cleansing the things that Moses commanded, for a testimony to them. 45 But he being gone out, began to publish and to blaze abroad the word: so that he could not openly go into the city. but was without in desert places. And they flocked to him from all sides. 1 And again he entered into Capharnaum after some days. 2 And it was heard that he was in the house. And many came together, so that there was no room: no, not even at the door. And he spoke to them the word. 3 And they came to him, bringing one sick of the palsy, who was carried by four. 4 And when they could not offer him unto him for the multitude, they uncovered the roof where he was: and opening it, they let down the bed wherein the man sick of the palsy lay. 5 And when Jesus had seen their faith, he saith to the sick of the palsy: Son, thy sins are forgiven thee. 6 And there were some of the scribes sitting there and thinking in their hearts: 7 Why doth this man speak thus? He blasphemeth. Who can forgive sins, but God only? 8 Which Jesus presently knowing in his spirit that they so thought within themselves, saith to them: Why think you these things in your hearts? 9 Which is easier, to say to the sick of the palsy: Thy sins are forgiven thee; or to say: Arise, take up thy bed and walk? 10 But that you may know that the Son of man hath power on earth to forgive sins (he saith to the sick of the palsy): 11 I say to thee: Arise. Take up thy bed and go into thy house. 12 And immediately he arose and, taking up his bed, went his way in the sight of all: so that all wondered and glorified God, saying: We never saw the like. 13 And he went forth again to the sea side: and all the multitude came to him. And he taught them. 14 And when he was passing by, he saw Levi, the son of Alpheus, sitting at the receipt of custom; and he saith to him: Follow me. And rising up, he followed him. 15 And it came to pass as he sat at meat in his house, many Publicans and sinners sat down together with Jesus and his disciples. For they were many, who also followed him. 16 And the scribes and the Pharisees, seeing that he ate with publicans and sinners, said to his disciples: Why doth your master eat and drink with publicans and sinners? 17 Jesus hearing this, saith to them: They that are well have no need of a physician, but they that are sick. For I came not to call the just, but sinners. 18 And the disciples of John and the Pharisees used to fast. And they come and say to him: Why do the disciples of John and of the Pharisees fast; but thy disciples do not fast? 19 And Jesus saith to them: Can the children of the marriage fast, as long as the bridegroom is with them? As long as they have the bridegroom with them, they cannot fast. 20 But the days will come when the bridegroom shall be taken away from them: and then they shall fast in those days. 21 No man seweth a piece of raw cloth to an old garment: otherwise the new piecing taketh away from the old, and there is made a greater rent. 22 And no man putteth new wine into old bottles: otherwise the wine will burst the bottles, and both the wine will be spilled and the bottles will be lost. But new wine must be put into new bottles. 23 And it came to pass again, as the Lord walked through the corn fields on the sabbath, that his disciples began to go forward and to pluck the ears of corn. 24 And the Pharisees said to him: Behold, why do they on the sabbath day that which is not lawful? 25 And he said to them: Have you never read what David did when he had need and was hungry himself and they that were with him? 26 How he went into the house of God, under Abiathar the high priest, and did eat the loaves of proposition, which was not lawful to eat but for the priests, and gave to them who were with him? 27 And he said to them: The sabbath was made for man, and not man for the sabbath. 28 Therefore the Son of man is Lord of the sabbath also. 1 And he entered again into the synagogue: and there was a man there who had a withered hand. 2 And they watched him whether he would heal on the sabbath days, that they might accuse him. 3 And he said to the man who had the withered hand: Stand up in the midst. 4 And he saith to them: Is it lawful to do good on the sabbath days, or to do evil? To save life, or to destroy? But they held their peace. 5 And looking round about on them with anger, being grieved for the blindness of their hearts, he saith to the man: Stretch forth thy hand. And he stretched it forth: and his hand was restored unto him. 6 And the Pharisees going out, immediately made a consultation with the Herodians against him, how they might destroy him. 7 But Jesus retired with his disciples to the sea; and a great multitude followed him from Galilee and Judea, 8 And from Jerusalem, and from Idumea and from beyond the Jordan. And they about Tyre and Sidon, a great multitude, hearing the things which he did, came to him. 9 And he spoke to his disciples that a small ship should wait on him, because of the multitude, lest they should throng him. 10 For he healed many, so that they pressed upon him for to touch him, as many as had evils. 11 And the unclean spirits, when they saw him, fell down before him: and they cried, saying: 12 Thou art the Son of God. And he strictly charged them that they should not make him known. 13 And going up into a mountain, he called unto him whom he would himself: and they came to him. 14 And he made that twelve should be with him, and that he might send them to preach. 15 And he gave them power to heal sicknesses, and to cast out devils. 16 And to Simon he gave the name Peter: 17 And James the son of Zebedee, and John the brother of James; and he named them Boanerges, which is, The sons of thunder. 18 And Andrew and Philip, and Bartholomew and Matthew, and Thomas and James of Alpheus, and Thaddeus and Simon the Cananean: 19 And Judas Iscariot, who also betrayed him. 20 And they come to a house, and the multitude cometh together again, so that they could not so much as eat bread. 21 And when his friends had heard of it, they went out to lay hold on him. For they said: He is become mad. 22 And the scribes who were come down from Jerusalem, said: He hath Beelzebub, and by the prince of devils he casteth out devils. 23 And after he had called them together, he said to them in parables: How can Satan cast out Satan? 24 And if a kingdom be divided against itself, that kingdom cannot stand. 25 And if a house be divided against itself, that house cannot stand. 26 And if Satan be risen up against himself, he is divided, and cannot stand, but hath an end. 27 No man can enter into the house of a strong man and rob him of his goods, unless he first bind the strong man, and then shall he plunder his house. 28 Amen I say to you that all sins shall be forgiven unto the sons of men, and the blasphemies wherewith they shall blaspheme: 29 But he that shall blaspheme against the Holy Ghost, shall never have forgiveness, but shall be guilty of an everlasting sin. 30 Because they said: He hath an unclean spirit. 31 And his mother and his brethren came; and standing without, sent unto him, calling him. 32 And the multitude sat about him; and they say to him: Behold thy mother and thy brethren without seek for thee. 33 And answering them, he said: Who is my mother and my brethren? 34 And looking round about on them who sat about him, he saith: Behold my mother and my brethren. 35 For whosoever shall do the will of God, he is my brother, and my sister, and mother. 1 And again he began to teach by the sea side; and a great multitude was gathered together unto him, so that he went up into a ship and sat in the sea: and all the multitude was upon the land by the sea side. 2 And he taught them many things in parables, and said unto them in his doctrine: 3 Hear ye: Behold, the sower went out to sow. 4 And whilst he sowed, some fell by the way side, and the birds of the air came and ate it up. 5 And other some fell upon stony ground, where it had not much earth; and it shot up immediately, because it had no depth of earth. 6 And when the sun was risen, it was scorched; and because it had no root, it withered away. 7 And some fell among thorns; and the thorns grew up, and choked it, and it yielded no fruit. 8 And some fell upon good ground; and brought forth fruit that grew up, and increased and yielded, one thirty, another sixty, and another a hundred. 9 And he said: He that hath ears to hear, let him hear. 10 And when he was alone, the twelve that were with him asked him the parable. 11 And he said to them: To you it is given to know the mystery of the kingdom of God: but to them that are without, all things are done in parables: 12 That seeing they may see, and not perceive; and hearing they may hear, and not understand; lest at any time they should be converted, and their sins should be forgiven them. 13 And he saith to them: Are you ignorant of this parable? and how shall you know all parables? 14 He that soweth, soweth the word. 15 And these are they by the way side, where the word is sown, and as soon as they have heard, immediately Satan cometh and taketh away the word that was sown in their hearts. 16 And these likewise are they that are sown on the stony ground: who when they have heard the word, immediately receive it with joy. 17 And they have no root in themselves, but are only for a time: and then when tribulation and persecution ariseth for the word they are presently scandalized. 18 And others there are who are sown among thorns: these are they that hear the word, 19 And the cares of the world, and the deceitfulness of riches, and the lusts after other things entering in choke the word, and it is made fruitless. 20 And these are they who are sown upon the good ground, who hear the word, and receive it, and yield fruit, the one thirty, another sixty, and another a hundred. 21 And he said to them: Doth a candle come in to be put under a bushel, or under a bed? and not to be set on a candlestick? 22 For there is nothing hid, which shall not be made manifest: neither was it made secret, but that it may come abroad. 23 If any man have ears to hear, let him hear. 24 And he said to them: Take heed what you hear. In what measure you shall mete, it shall be measured to you again, and more shall be

Markus 10,32–16,20

32 And they were in the way going up to Jerusalem: and Jesus went before them. And they were astonished and following were afraid. And taking again the twelve, he began to tell them the things that should befall him. 33 Saying: Behold we go up to Jerusalem, and the Son of man shall be betrayed to the chief priests and to the scribes and ancients. And they shall condemn him to death and shall deliver him to the Gentiles. 34 And they shall mock him and spit on him and scourge him and kill him: and the third day he shall rise again. 35 And James and John, the sons of Zebedee, come to him, saying: Master, we desire that whatsoever we shall ask, thou wouldst do it for us. 36 But he said to them: What would you that I should do for you? 37 And they said: Grant to us that we may sit, one on thy right hand and the other on thy left hand, in thy glory. 38 And Jesus said to them: You know not what you ask. Can you drink of the chalice that I drink of or be baptized with the baptism wherewith I am baptized? 39 But they said to him: We can. And Jesus saith to them: You shall indeed drink of the chalice that I drink of; and with the baptism wherewith I am baptized you shall be baptized. 40 But to sit on my right hand or on my left is not mine to give to you, but to them for whom it is prepared. 41 And the ten, hearing it, began to be much displeased at James and John. 42 But Jesus calling them, saith to them: You know that they who seem to rule over the Gentiles lord it over them: and their princes have power over them. 43 But it is not so among you: but whosoever will be greater shall be your minister. 44 And whosoever will be first among you shall be the servant of all. 45 For the Son of man also is not come to be ministered unto: but to minister and to give his life a redemption for many. 46 And they came to Jericho. And as he went out of Jericho with his disciples and a very great multitude, Bartimeus the blind man, the son of Timeus, sat by the way side begging. 47 Who when he had heard that it was Jesus of Nazareth, began to cry out and to say: Jesus, Son of David, have mercy on me. 48 And many rebuked him, that he might hold his peace; but he cried a great deal the more: Son of David, have mercy on me. 49 And Jesus, standing still, commanded him to be called. And they call the blind man, saying to him: Be of better comfort. Arise, he calleth thee. 50 Who casting off his garment leaped up and came to him. 51 And Jesus answering, said to him: What wilt thou that I should do to thee? And the blind man said to him: Rabboni. That I may see. 52 And Jesus saith to him: Go thy way. Thy faith hath made thee whole. And immediately he saw and followed him in the way. 1 And when they were drawing near to Jerusalem and to Bethania, at the mount of Olives, he sendeth two of his disciples, 2 And saith to them: Go into the village that is over against you, and immediately at your coming in thither, you shall find a colt tied, upon which no man yet hath sat. Loose him and bring him. 3 And if any man shall say to you: What are you doing? Say ye that the Lord hath need of him. And immediately he will let him come hither. 4 And going their way, they found the colt tied before the gate without, in the meeting of two ways. And they loose him. 5 And some of them that stood there said to them: What do you loosing the colt? 6 Who said to them as Jesus had commanded them. And they let him go with them. 7 And they brought the colt to Jesus. And they lay their garments on him: and he sat upon him. 8 And many spread their garments in the way: and others cut down boughs from the trees and strewed them in the way. 9 And they that went before and they that followed cried, saying: Hosanna: Blessed is he that cometh in the name of the Lord. 10 Blessed be the kingdom of our father David that cometh: Hosanna in the highest. 11 And he entered into Jerusalem, into the temple: and having viewed all things round about, when now the eventide was come, he went out to Bethania with the twelve. 12 And the next day when they came out from Bethania, he was hungry. 13 And when he had seen afar off a fig tree having leaves, he came, if perhaps he might find any thing on it. And when he was come to it, he found nothing but leaves. For it was not the time for figs. 14 And answering he said to it: May no man hereafter eat fruit of thee any more for ever! And his disciples heard it. 15 And they came to Jerusalem. And when he was entered into the temple, he began to cast out them that sold and bought in the temple: and over threw the tables of the moneychangers and the chairs of them that sold doves. 16 And he suffered not that any man should carry a vessel through the temple. 17 And he taught, saying to them: Is it not written: My house shall be called the house of prayer to all nations, but you have made it a den of thieves. 18 Which when the chief priests and the scribes had heard, they sought how they might destroy him. For they feared him, because the whole multitude was in admiration at his doctrine. 19 And when evening was come, he went forth out of the city. 20 And when they passed by in the morning they saw the fig tree dried up from the roots. 21 And Peter remembering, said to him: Rabbi, behold the fig tree which thou didst curse is withered away. 22 And Jesus answering, saith to them: Have the faith of God. 23 Amen I say to you that whosoever shall say to this mountain, Be thou removed and be cast into the sea, and shall not stagger in his heart, but believe that whatsoever he saith shall be done; it shall be done unto him. 24 Therefore I say unto you, all things, whatsoever you ask when ye pray, believe that you shall receive: and they shall come unto you. 25 And when you shall stand to pray, forgive, if you have aught against any man: that your Father also, who is in heaven, may forgive you your sins. 26 But if you will not forgive, neither will your father that is in heaven forgive you your sins. 27 And they come again to Jerusalem. And when he was walking in the temple, there come to him the chief priests and the scribes and the ancients. 28 And they say to him: By what authority dost thou these things? And who hath given thee this authority that thou shouldst do these things? 29 And Jesus answering, said to them: I will also ask you one word. And answer you me: and I will tell you by what authority I do these things. 30 The baptism of John, was it from heaven or from men? Answer me. 31 But they thought with themselves, saying: If we say, From heaven; he will say, Why then did you not believe him? 32 If we say, From men, we fear the people. For all men counted John that he was a prophet indeed. 33 And they answering, say to Jesus: We know not. And Jesus answering, saith to them: Neither do I tell you by what authority I do these things. 1 And he began to speak to them in parables: A certain man planted a vineyard and made a hedge about it and dug a place for the winefat and built a tower and let it to husbandmen: and went into a far country. 2 And at the season he sent to the husbandmen a servant to receive of the husbandmen of the fruit of the vineyard. 3 Who, having laid hands on him, beat and sent him away empty. 4 And again he sent to them another servant: and him they wounded in the head and used him reproachfully. 5 And again he sent another, and him they killed: and many others, of whom some they beat, and others they killed. 6 Therefore, having yet one son, most dear to him, he also sent him unto them last of all, saying: They will reverence my son. 7 But the husbandmen said one to another: This is the heir. Come let us kill him and the inheritance shall be ours. 8 And laying hold on him, they killed him and cast him out of the vineyard. 9 What therefore will the lord of the vineyard do? He will come and destroy those husbandmen and will give the vineyard to others. 10 And have you not read this scripture, The stone which the builders rejected, the same is made the head of the corner: 11 By the Lord has this been done, and it is wonderful in our eyes. 12 And they sought to lay hands on him: but they feared the people. For they knew that he spoke this parable to them. And leaving him, they went their way. 13 And they sent to him some of the Pharisees and of the Herodians: that they should catch him in his words. 14 Who coming, say to him: Master, we know that thou art a true speaker and carest not for any man; for thou regardest not the person of men, but teachest the way of God in truth. Is it lawful to give tribute to Caesar? Or shall we not give it? 15 Who knowing their wiliness, saith to them: Why tempt you me? Bring me a penny that I may see it. 16 And they brought it him. And he saith to them: Whose is this image and inscription? They say to him, Caesar’s. 17 And Jesus answering, said to them: Render therefore to Caesar the things that are Caesar’s and to God the things that are God’s. And they marvelled at him. 18 And there came to him the Sadducees, who say there is no resurrection. And they asked him, saying: 19 Master, Moses wrote unto us that if any man’s brother die and leave his wife behind him and leave no children, his brother should take his wife and raise up seed to his brother. 20 Now there were seven brethren: and the first took a wife and died leaving no issue. 21 And the second took her and died: and neither did he leave any issue. And the third in like manner. 22 And the seven all took her in like manner and did not leave issue. Last of all the woman also died. 23 In the resurrection therefore, when they shall rise again, whose wife shall she be of them? For the seven had her to wife. 24 And Jesus answering, saith to them: Do ye not therefore err, because you know not the scriptures nor the power of God? 25 For when they shall rise again from the dead, they shall neither marry, nor be married, but are as the angels in heaven. 26 And as concerning the dead that they rise again have you not read in the book of Moses, how in the bush God spoke to him, saying: I am the God of Abraham and the God of Isaac and the God of Jacob? 27 He is not the God of the dead, but of the living. You therefore do greatly err. 28 And there came one of the scribes that had heard them reasoning together, and seeing that he had answered them well, asked him which was the first commandment of all. 29 And Jesus answered him: The first commandment of all is, Hear, O Israel: the Lord thy God is one God. 30 And thou shalt love the Lord thy God with thy whole heart and with thy whole soul and with thy whole mind and with thy whole strength. This is the first commandment. 31 And the second is like to it: Thou shalt love thy neighbour as thyself. There is no other commandment greater than these. 32 And the scribe said to him: Well, Master, thou hast said in truth that there is one God and there is no other besides him. 33 And that he should be loved with the whole heart and with the whole understanding and with the whole soul and with the whole strength. And to love one’s neighbour as one’s self is a greater thing than all holocausts and sacrifices. 34 And Jesus seeing that he had answered wisely, said to him: Thou art not far from the kingdom of God. And no man after that durst ask him any question. 35 And Jesus answering, said, teaching in the temple: How do the scribes say that Christ is the son of David? 36 For David himself saith by the Holy Ghost: The Lord said to my Lord: Sit on my right hand, until I make thy enemies thy footstool. 37 David therefore himself calleth him Lord. And whence is he then his son? And a great multitude heard him gladly. 38 And he said to them in his doctrine: Beware of the scribes, who love to walk in long robes and to be saluted in the marketplace, 39 And to sit in the first chairs in the synagogues and to have the highest places at suppers: 40 Who devour the houses of widows under the pretence of long prayer. These shall receive greater judgment. 41 And Jesus sitting over against the treasury, beheld how the people cast money into the treasury. And many that were rich cast in much. 42 And there came a certain poor widow: and she cast in two mites, which make a farthing. 43 And calling his disciples together, he saith to them: Amen I say to you, this poor widow hath cast in more than all they who have cast into the treasury. 44 For all they did cast in of their abundance; but she of her want cast in all she had, even her whole living. 1 And as he was going out of the temple, one of his disciples said to him: Master, behold what manner of stones and what buildings are here. 2 And Jesus answering, said to him: Seest thou all these great buildings? There shall not be left a stone upon a stone, that shall not be thrown down. 3 And as he sat on the mount of Olivet over against the temple, Peter and James and John and Andrew asked him apart: 4 Tell us, when shall these things be and what shall be the sign when all these things shall begin to be fulfilled? 5 And Jesus answering, began to say to them: Take heed lest any man deceive you. 6 For many shall come in my name saying, I am he: and they shall deceive many. 7 And when you shall hear of wars and rumours of wars, fear ye not. For such things must needs be: but the end is not yet. 8 For nation shall rise against nation and kingdom against kingdom: and there shall be earthquakes in divers places and famines. These things are the beginning of sorrows. 9 But look to yourselves. For they shall deliver you Up to councils: and in the synagogues you shall be beaten: and you shall stand before governors and kings for my sake, for a testimony unto them. 10 And unto all nations the gospel must first be preached. 11 And when they shall lead you and deliver you up, be not thoughtful beforehand what you shall speak: but whatsoever shall be given you in that hour, that speak ye. For it is not you that speak, but the Holy Ghost. 12 And the brother shall betray his brother unto death, and the father his son; and children shall rise up against their parents and shall work their death. 13 And you shall be hated by all men for my name’s sake. But he that shall endure unto the end, he shall be saved. 14 And when you shall see the abomination of desolation, standing where it ought not (he that readeth let him understand): then let them that are in Judea flee unto the mountains. 15 And let him that is on the housetop not go down into the house nor enter therein to take any thing out of the house. 16 And let him that shall be in the field not turn back to take up his garment. 17 And woe to them that are with child and that give suck in those days. 18 But pray ye that these things happen not in winter. 19 For in those days shall be such tribulations as were not from the beginning of the creation which God created until now: neither shall be. 20 And unless the Lord

Lukas 1,8–3,22

8 And it came to pass, when he executed the priestly function in the order of his course before God, 9 According to the custom of the priestly office, it was his lot to offer incense, going into the temple of the Lord. 10 And all the multitude of the people was praying without, at the hour of incense. 11 And there appeared to him an angel of the Lord, standing on the right side of the altar of incense. 12 And Zachary seeing him, was troubled: and fear fell upon him. 13 But the angel said to him: Fear not, Zachary, for thy prayer is heard: and thy wife Elizabeth shall bear thee a son. And thou shalt call his name John. 14 And thou shalt have joy and gladness: and many shall rejoice in his nativity. 15 For he shall be great before the Lord and shall drink no wine nor strong drink: and he shall be filled with the Holy Ghost, even from his mother’s womb. 16 And he shall convert many of the children of Israel to the Lord their God. 17 And he shall go before him in the spirit and power of Elias: that he may turn the hearts of the fathers unto the children and the incredulous to the wisdom of the just, to prepare unto the Lord a perfect people. 18 And Zachary said to the angel: Whereby shall I know this? For I am an old man, and my wife is advanced in years. 19 And the angel answering, said to him: I am Gabriel, who stand before God and am sent to speak to thee and to bring thee these good tidings. 20 And behold, thou shalt be dumb and shalt not be able to speak until the day wherein these things shall come to pass: because thou hast not believed my words, which shall be fulfilled in their time. 21 And the people were waiting for Zachary: and they wondered that he tarried so long in the temple. 22 And when he came out, he could not speak to them: and they understood that he had seen a vision in the temple. And he made signs to them and remained dumb. 23 And it came to pass, after the days of his office were accomplished, he departed to his own house. 24 And after those days, Elizabeth his wife conceived and hid herself five months, saying: 25 Thus hath the Lord dealt with me in the days wherein he hath had regard to take away my reproach among men. 26 And in the sixth month, the angel Gabriel was sent from God into a city of Galilee, called Nazareth, 27 To a virgin espoused to a man whose name was Joseph, of the house of David: and the virgin’s name was Mary. 28 And the angel being come in, said unto her: Hail, full of grace, the Lord is with thee: blessed art thou among women. 29 Who having heard, was troubled at his saying and thought with herself what manner of salutation this should be. 30 And the angel said to her: Fear not, Mary, for thou hast found grace with God. 31 Behold thou shalt conceive in thy womb and shalt bring forth a son: and thou shalt call his name Jesus. 32 He shall be great and shall be called the Son of the Most High. And the Lord God shall give unto him the throne of David his father: and he shall reign in the house of Jacob for ever. 33 And of his kingdom there shall be no end. 34 And Mary said to the angel: How shall this be done, because I know not man? 35 And the angel answering, said to her: The Holy Ghost shall come upon thee and the power of the Most High shall overshadow thee. And therefore also the Holy which shall be born of thee shall be called the Son of God. 36 And behold thy cousin Elizabeth, she also hath conceived a son in her old age: and this is the sixth month with her that is called barren. 37 Because no word shall be impossible with God. 38 And Mary said: Behold the handmaid of the Lord: be it done to me according to thy word. And the angel departed from her. 39 And Mary rising up in those days, went into the hill country with haste into a city of Juda. 40 And she entered into the house of Zachary and saluted Elizabeth. 41 And it came to pass that when Elizabeth heard the salutation of Mary, the infant leaped in her womb. And Elizabeth was filled with the Holy Ghost. 42 And she cried out with a loud voice and said: Blessed art thou among women and blessed is the fruit of thy womb. 43 And whence is this to me that the mother of my Lord should come to me? 44 For behold as soon as the voice of thy salutation sounded in my ears, the infant in my womb leaped for joy. 45 And blessed art thou that hast believed, because those things shall be accomplished that were spoken to thee by the Lord. 46 And Mary said: My soul doth magnify the Lord. 47 And my spirit hath rejoiced in God my Saviour. 48 Because he hath regarded the humility of his handmaid: for behold from henceforth all generations shall call me blessed. 49 Because he that is mighty hath done great things to me: and holy is his name. 50 And his mercy is from generation unto generations, to them that fear him. 51 He hath shewed might in his arm: he hath scattered the proud in the conceit of their heart. 52 He hath put down the mighty from their seat and hath exalted the humble. 53 He hath filled the hungry with good things: and the rich he hath sent empty away. 54 He hath received Israel his servant, being mindful of his mercy. 55 As he spoke to our fathers: to Abraham and to his seed for ever. 56 And Mary abode with her about three months. And she returned to her own house. 57 Now Elizabeth’s full time of being delivered was come: and she brought forth a son. 58 And her neighbors and kinsfolks heard that the Lord had shewed his great mercy towards her: and they congratulated with her. 59 And it came to pass that on the eighth day they came to circumcise the child: and they called him by his father’s name Zachary. 60 And his mother answering, said: Not so. But he shall be called John. 61 And they said to her: There is none of thy kindred that is called by this name. 62 And they made signs to his father, how he would have him called. 63 And demanding a writing table, he wrote, saying: John is his name. And they all wondered. 64 And immediately his mouth was opened and his tongue loosed: and he spoke, blessing God. 65 And fear came upon all their neighbours: and all these things were noised abroad over all the hill country of Judea. 66 And all they that had heard them laid them up in their heart, saying: What an one, think ye, shall this child be? For the hand of the Lord was with him. 67 And Zachary his father was filled with the Holy Ghost. And he prophesied, saying: 68 Blessed be the Lord God of Israel: because he hath visited and wrought the redemption of his people. 69 And hath raised up an horn of salvation to us, in the house of David his servant. 70 As he spoke by the mouth of his holy prophets, who are from the beginning. 71 Salvation from our enemies and from the hand of all that hate us. 72 To perform mercy to our fathers and to remember his holy testament. 73 The oath, which he swore to Abraham our father, that he would grant to us. 74 That being delivered from the hand of our enemies, we may serve him without fear: 75 In holiness and justice before him, all our days. 76 And thou, child, shalt be called the prophet of the Highest: for thou shalt go before the face of the Lord to prepare his ways: 77 To give knowledge of salvation to his people, unto the remission of their sins. 78 Through the bowels of the mercy of our God, in which the Orient from on high hath visited us: 79 To enlighten them that sit in darkness and in the shadow of death: to direct our feet into the way of peace. 80 And the child grew and was strengthened in spirit: and was in the deserts until the day of his manifestation to Israel. 1 And it came to pass that in those days there went out a decree from Caesar Augustus that the whole world should be enrolled. 2 This enrolling was first made by Cyrinus, the governor of Syria. 3 And all went to be enrolled, every one into his own city. 4 And Joseph also went up from Galilee, out of the city of Nazareth, into Judea, to the city of David, which is called Bethlehem: because he was of the house and family of David. 5 To be enrolled with Mary his espoused wife, who was with child. 6 And it came to pass that when they were there, her days were accomplished that she should be delivered. 7 And she brought forth her first born son and wrapped him up in swaddling clothes and laid him in a manger: because there was no room for them in the inn. 8 And there were in the same country shepherds watching and keeping the night watches over their flock. 9 And behold an angel of the Lord stood by them and the brightness of God shone round about them: and they feared with a great fear. 10 And the angel said to them: Fear not; for, behold, I bring you good tidings of great joy that shall be to all the people: 11 For, this day is born to you a Saviour, who is Christ the Lord, in the city of David. 12 And this shall be a sign unto you. You shall find the infant wrapped in swaddling clothes and laid in a manger. 13 And suddenly there was with the angel a multitude of the heavenly army, praising God and saying: 14 Glory to God in the highest: and on earth peace to men of good will. 15 And it came to pass, after the angels departed from them into heaven, the shepherds said one to another: Let us go over to Bethlehem and let us see this word that is come to pass, which the Lord hath shewed to us. 16 And they came with haste: and they found Mary and Joseph, and the infant lying in the manger. 17 And seeing, they understood of the word that had been spoken to them concerning this child. 18 And all that heard wondered: and at those things that were told them by the shepherds. 19 But Mary kept all these words, pondering them in her heart. 20 And the shepherds returned, glorifying and praising God for all the things they had heard and seen, as it was told unto them. 21 And after eight days were accomplished, that the child should be circumcised, his name was called JESUS, which was called by the angel before he was conceived in the womb. 22 And after the days of her purification, according to the law of Moses, were accomplished, they carried him to Jerusalem, to present him to the Lord: 23 As it is written in the law of the Lord: Every male opening the womb shall be called holy to the Lord: 24 And to offer a sacrifice, according as it is written in the law of the Lord, a pair of turtledoves or two young pigeons: 25 And behold there was a man in Jerusalem named Simeon: and this man was just and devout, waiting for the consolation of Israel. And the Holy Ghost was in him. 26 And he had received an answer from the Holy Ghost, that he should not see death before he had seen the Christ of the Lord. 27 And he came by the Spirit into the temple. And when his parents brought in the child Jesus, to do for him according to the custom of the law, 28 He also took him into his arms and blessed God and said 29 Now thou dost dismiss thy servant, O Lord, according to thy word in peace: 30 Because my eyes have seen thy salvation, 31 Which thou hast prepared before the face of all peoples: 32 A light to the revelation of the Gentiles and the glory of thy people Israel. 33 And his father and mother were wondering at those things which were spoken concerning him. 34 And Simeon blessed them and said to Mary his mother: Behold this child is set for the fall and for the resurrection of many in Israel and for a sign which shall be contradicted. 35 And thy own soul a sword shall pierce, that, out of many hearts thoughts may be revealed. 36 And there was one Anna, a prophetess, the daughter of Phanuel, of the tribe of Aser. She was far advanced in years and had lived with her husband seven years from her virginity. 37 And she was a widow until fourscore and four years: who departed not from the temple, by fastings and prayers serving night and day. 38 Now she, at the same hour, coming in, confessed to the Lord: and spoke of him to all that looked for the redemption of Israel. 39 And after they had performed all things according to the law of the Lord, they returned into Galilee, to their city Nazareth. 40 And the child grew and waxed strong, full of wisdom: and the grace of God was in him. 41 And his parents went every year to Jerusalem, at the solemn day of the pasch. 42 And when he was twelve years old, they going up into Jerusalem, according to the custom of the feast, 43 And having fulfilled the days, when they returned, the child Jesus remained in Jerusalem. And his parents knew it not. 44 And thinking that he was in the company, they came a day’s journey and sought him among their kinsfolks and acquaintance. 45 And not finding him, they returned into Jerusalem, seeking him. 46 And it came to pass, that, after three days, they found him in the temple, sitting in the midst of the doctors, hearing them and asking them questions. 47 And all that heard him were astonished at his wisdom and his answers. 48 And seeing him, they wondered. And his mother said to him: Son, why hast thou done so to us? Behold thy father and I have sought thee sorrowing. 49 And he said to them: How is it that you sought me? Did you not know that I must be about my father’s business? 50 And they understood not the word that he spoke unto them. 51 And he went down with them and came to Nazareth and was subject to them. And his mother kept all these words in her heart. 52 And Jesus advanced in wisdom and age and grace with God and men. 1 Now in the fifteenth year of the reign of Tiberius Caesar, Pontius Pilate being governor of Judea, and Herod being tetrarch of Galilee, and Philip his brother tetrarch of Iturea and the country of Trachonitis, and Lysanias tetrarch of Abilina: 2 Under the high priests Anna and Caiphas: the word of the Lord was made unto John, the son of Zachary, in the desert. 3 And he came into all the country about the Jordan, preaching the baptism of penance for the remission of sins. 4 As it was written in the book of the sayings of Isaias the prophet: A voice of one crying in the wilderness: Prepare ye the way of the Lord, make straight his paths. 5 Every valley shall be filled and every mountain and hill shall be brought low: and the crooked shall be made straight, and the rough ways plain. 6 And all flesh shall see the salvation of God. 7 He said therefore to the multitudes that went forth to be baptized by him: Ye offspring of vipers, who hath shewed you to flee from the wrath to come? 8 Bring forth therefore fruits worthy of penance: and do not begin to say, We have Abraham for our father. For I say unto you that God is able of these stones, to raise up children to Abraham. 9 For now the axe is laid to the root of the trees. Every tree therefore that bringeth not forth good fruit shall be cut down and cast into the fire. 10 And the people asked him, saying: What then shall we do? 11 And he answering, said to them: He that hath two coats, let him give to him that hath none; and he that hath meat, let him do in

Lukas 4,1–9,50

1 And Jesus being full of the Holy Ghost, returned from the Jordan and was led the by the spirit into the desert, 2 For the space of forty days, and was tempted by the devil. And he ate nothing in those days. And when they were ended, he was hungry. 3 And the devil said to him: If thou be the Son of God, say to this stone that it be made bread. 4 And Jesus answered him: is written that Man liveth not by bread alone, but by every word of God. 5 And the devil led him into a high mountain and shewed him all the kingdoms of the world in a moment of time. 6 And he said to him: To thee will I give all this power and the glory of them. For to me they are delivered: and to whom I will, I give them. 7 If thou therefore wilt adore before me, all shall be thine. 8 And Jesus answering said to him. It is written: Thou shalt adore the Lord thy God, and him only shalt thou serve. 9 And he brought him to Jerusalem and set him on a pinnacle of the temple and said to him: If thou be the Son of God, cast thyself from hence. 10 For it is written that He hath given his angels charge over thee that they keep thee. 11 And that in their hands they shall bear thee up, lest perhaps thou dash thy foot against a stone. 12 And Jesus answering, said to him: It is said: Thou shalt not tempt the Lord thy God. 13 And all the temptation being ended, the devil departed from him for a time. 14 And Jesus returned in the power of the spirit, into Galilee: and the fame of him went out through the whole country. 15 And he taught in their synagogues and was magnified by all. 16 And he came to Nazareth, where he was brought up: and he went into the synagogue, according to his custom, on the sabbath day: and he rose up to read. 17 And the book of Isaias the prophet was delivered unto him. And as he unfolded the book, he found the place where it was written: 18 The spirit of the Lord is upon me. Wherefore he hath anointed me to preach the gospel to the poor, he hath sent me to heal the contrite of heart, 19 To preach deliverance to the captives and sight to the blind, to set at liberty them that are bruised, to preach the acceptable year of the Lord and the day of reward. 20 And when he had folded the book, he restored it to the minister and sat down. And the eyes of all in the synagogue were fixed on him. 21 And he began to say to them: This day is fulfilled this scripture in your ears. 22 And all gave testimony to him. And they wondered at the words of grace that proceeded from his mouth. And they said: Is not this the son of Joseph? 23 And he said to them: Doubtless you will say to me this similitude: Physician, heal thyself. As great things as we have heard done in Capharnaum, do also here in thy own country. 24 And he said: Amen I say to you that no prophet is accepted in his own country. 25 In truth I say to You, there were many widows in the days of Elias in Israel, when heaven was shut up three years and six months, when there was a great famine throughout all the earth. 26 And to none of them was Elias sent, but to Sarepta of Sidon, to a widow woman. 27 And there were many lepers in Israel in the time of Eliseus the prophet: and none of them was cleansed but Naaman the Syrian. 28 And all they in the synagogue, hearing these things, were filled with anger. 29 And they rose up and thrust him out of the city: and they brought him to the brow of the hill whereon their city was built, that they might cast him down headlong. 30 But he passing through the midst of them, went his way. 31 And he went down into Capharnaum, a city of Galilee: and there he taught them on the sabbath days. 32 And they were astonished at his doctrine: for his speech was with power. 33 And in the synagogue there was a man who had an unclean devil: and he cried out with a loud voice, 34 Saying: Let us alone. What have we to do with thee, Jesus of Nazareth? Art thou come to destroy us? I know thee who thou art, the holy one of God. 35 And Jesus rebuked him, saying: Hold thy peace and go out of him. And when the devil had thrown him into the midst, he went out of him and hurt him not at all. 36 And there came fear upon all; and they talked among themselves, saying: What word is this, for with authority and power he commandeth the unclean spirits, and they go out? 37 And the fame of him was published into every place of the country. 38 And Jesus rising up out of the synagogue, went into Simon’s house. And Simon’s wife’s mother was taken with a great fever: and they besought him for her. 39 And standing over her, he commanded the fever: and it left her. And immediately rising, she ministered to them. 40 And when the sun was down, all they that had any sick with divers diseases brought them to him. But he, laying his hands on every one of them, healed them. 41 And devils went out from many, crying out and saying: Thou art the son of God. And rebuking them he suffered them not to speak; for they knew that he was Christ. 42 And when it was day, going out he went into a desert place: and the multitudes sought him, and came unto him. And they stayed him that should not depart from them. 43 To whom he said: To other cities also I must preach the kingdom of God: for therefore am I sent. 44 And he was preaching in the synagogues of Galilee. 1 And it came to pass, that when the multitudes pressed upon him to hear the word of God, he stood by the lake of Genesareth, 2 And saw two ships standing by the lake: but the fishermen were gone out of them and were washing their nets. 3 And going into one of the ships that was Simon’s, he desired him to draw back a little from the land. And sitting, he taught the multitudes out of the ship. 4 Now when he had ceased to speak, he said to Simon: Launch out into the deep and let down your nets for a draught. 5 And Simon answering said to him: Master, we have laboured all the night and have taken nothing: but at thy word I will let down the net. 6 And when they had done this, they enclosed a very great multitude of fishes: and their net broke. 7 And they beckoned to their partners that were in the other ship, that they should come and help them. And they came and filled both the ships, so that they were almost sinking. 8 Which when Simon Peter saw, he fell down at Jesus’ knees, saying: Depart from me, for I am a sinful man, O Lord. 9 For he was wholly astonished, and all that were with him, at the draught of the fishes which they had taken. 10 And so were also James and John, the sons of Zebedee, who were Simon’s partners. And Jesus saith to Simon: Fear not: from henceforth thou shalt catch men. 11 And having brought their ships to land, leaving all things, they followed him. 12 And it came to pass, when he was in a certain city, behold a man full of leprosy who, seeing Jesus and falling on his face, besought him saying: Lord, if thou wilt, thou canst make me clean. 13 And stretching forth his hand, he touched him, saying: I will. Be thou cleansed. And immediately the leprosy departed from him. 14 And he charged him that he should tell no man, but: Go, shew thyself to the priest and offer for thy cleansing according as Moses commanded, for a testimony to them. 15 But the fame of him went abroad the more: and great multitudes came together to hear and to be healed by him of their infirmities. 16 And he retired into the desert; and prayed. 17 And it came to pass on a certain day, as he sat teaching, that there were also Pharisees and doctors of the law sitting by, that were come out of every town of Galilee and Judea and Jerusalem: and the power of the Lord was to heal them. 18 And behold, men brought in a bed a man who had the palsy: and they sought means to bring him in and to lay him before him. 19 And when they could not find by what way they might bring him in, because of the multitude, they went up upon the roof and let him down through the tiles with his bed into the midst before Jesus. 20 Whose faith when he saw, he said: Man, thy sins are forgiven thee. 21 And the scribes and Pharisees began to think, saying: Who is this who speaketh blasphemies? Who can forgive sins, but God alone? 22 And when Jesus knew their thoughts, answering he said to them: What is it you think in your hearts? 23 Which is easier to say: Thy sins are forgiven thee; or to say: Arise and walk? 24 But that you may know that the Son of man hath the power on earth to forgive sins (he saith to the sick of the palsy), I say to thee to: Arise, take up thy bed and go into thy house. 25 And immediately rising up before them, he took up the bed on which he lay: and he went away to his own house, glorifying God. 26 And all were astonished: and they glorified God. And they were filled with fear, saying: We have seen wonderful things to-day. 27 And after these things, he went forth and saw a publican named Levi, sitting at the receipt of custom: and he said to him: Follow me. 28 And leaving all things, he rose up and followed him. 29 And Levi made him a great feast in his own house: And there was a great company of publicans and of others that were at table with them. 30 But the Pharisees and scribes murmured, saying to his disciples: Why do you eat and drink with publicans and sinners? 31 And Jesus answering, said to them: They that are whole need not the physician: but they that are sick. 32 I came not to call the just, but sinners to penance. 33 And they said to him: Why do the disciples of John fast often and make prayers, and the disciples of the Pharisees in like manner; but thine eat and drink? 34 To whom he said: Can you make the children of the bridegroom fast whilst the bridegroom is with them? 35 But the days will come when the bridegroom shall be taken away from them: then shall they fast in those days. 36 And he spoke also a similitude to them: That no man putteth a piece from a new garment upon an old garment: otherwise he both rendeth the new, and the piece taken from the new agreeth not with the old. 37 And no man putteth new wine into old bottles: otherwise the new wine will break the bottles; and it will be spilled and the bottles will be lost. 38 But new wine must be put into new bottles: and both are preserved. 39 And no man drinking old hath presently a mind to new: for he saith: The old is better. 1 And it came to pass on the second first sabbath that, as he went through the corn fields, his disciples plucked the ears and did eat, rubbing them in their hands. 2 And some of the Pharisees said to them: Why do you that which is not lawful on the sabbath days? 3 And Jesus answering them, said: Have you not read so much as this, what David did, when himself was hungry and they that were with him: 4 How he went into the house of God and took and ate the bread of proposition and gave to them that were with him, which is not lawful to eat but only for the priests? 5 And he said to them: The Son of man is Lord also of the sabbath. 6 And it came to pass also, on another sabbath, that he entered into the synagogue and taught. And there was a man whose right hand was withered. 7 And the scribes and Pharisees watched if he would heal on the sabbath: that they might find an accusation against him. 8 But he knew their thoughts and said to the man who had the withered hand: Arise and stand forth in the midst. And rising he stood forth. 9 Then Jesus said to them: I ask you, if it be lawful on the sabbath days to do good or to do evil? To save life or to destroy? 10 And looking round about on them all, he said to the man: Stretch forth thy hand. And he stretched it forth. And his hand was restored. 11 And they were filled with madness: and they talked one with another, what they might do to Jesus. 12 And it came to pass in those days, that he went out into a mountain to pray: and he passed the whole night in the prayer of God. 13 And when day was come, he called unto him his disciples: and he chose twelve of them (whom also he named apostles): 14 Simon, whom he surnamed Peter, and Andrew his brother, James and John, Philip and Bartholomew, 15 Matthew and Thomas, James the son of Alpheus, and Simon who is called Zelotes, 16 And Jude the brother of James, and Judas Iscariot, who was the traitor. 17 And coming down with them, he stood in a plain place: and the company of his disciples and a very great multitude of people from all Judea and Jerusalem and the sea coast, both of Tyre and Sidon, 18 Who were come to hear him and to be healed of their diseases. And they that were troubled with unclean spirits were cured. 19 And all the multitude sought to touch him: for virtue went out from him and healed all. 20 And he, lifting up his eyes on his disciples, said: Blessed are ye poor: for yours is the kingdom of God. 21 Blessed are ye that hunger now: for you shall be filled. Blessed are ye that weep now: for you shall laugh. 22 Blessed shall you be when men shall hate you, and when they shall separate you and shall reproach you and cast out your name as evil, for the Son of man’s sake. 23 Be glad in that day and rejoice: for behold, your reward is great in heaven, For according to these things did their fathers to the prophets. 24 But woe to you that are rich: for you have your consolation. 25 Woe to you that are filled: for you shall hunger. Woe to you that now laugh: for you shall mourn and weep. 26 Woe to you when men shall bless you: for according to these things did their fathers to the false prophets. 27 But I say to you that hear: Love your enemies. Do good to them that hate you. 28 Bless them that curse you and pray for them that calumniate you. 29 And to him that striketh thee on the one cheek, offer also the other. And him that taketh away from thee thy cloak, forbid not to take thy coat also. 30 Give to every one that asketh thee: and of him that taketh away thy goods, ask them not again. 31 And as you would that men should do to you, do you also to them in like manner. 32 And if you love them that love you, what thanks are to you? For sinners also love those that love them. 33 And if you do good to them who do good to you, what thanks are to you? For sinners also do this. 34 And if you lend to them of whom you hope to receive, what thanks are to you? For sinners also lend to sinners, for to receive as much. 35 But love ye your enemies: do good, and lend, hoping for nothing thereby: and your reward shall be great, and you shall be the sons of the Highest. For he is kind to the unthankful and to the evil. 36 Be ye therefore merciful, as your Father also is merciful. 37 Judge not: and you shall not be judged. Condemn not: and you shall not be condemned. Forgive: and you shall be forgiven. 38 Give: and it shall be given to you: good measure and pressed down and shaken together and running over shall they give into your bosom. For with the same measure that you shall mete withal, it shall be measured to you again. 39 And he spoke also to them a similitude:

Lukas 10,1–24,53

1 And after these things, the Lord appointed also other seventy-two. And he sent them two and two before his face into every city and place whither he himself was to come. 2 And he said to them: The harvest indeed is great, but the labourers are few. Pray ye therefore the Lord of the harvest that he send labourers into his harvest. 3 Go: Behold I send you as lambs among wolves. 4 Carry neither purse, nor scrip, nor shoes: and salute no man by the way. 5 Into whatever house you enter, first say: Peace be to this house. 6 And if the son of peace be there, your peace shall rest upon him: but if not, it shall return to you. 7 And in the same house, remain, eating and drinking such things as they have: for the labourer is worthy of his hire. Remove not from house to house. 8 And into what city soever you enter, and they receive you, eat such things as are set before you. 9 And heal the sick that are therein and say to them: The kingdom of God is come nigh unto you. 10 But into whatsoever city you enter, and they receive you not, going forth into the streets thereof, say: 11 Even the very dust of your city that cleaveth to us, we wipe off against you. Yet know this, that the kingdom of God is at hand. 12 I say to you, it shall be more tolerable at that day for Sodom than for that city. 13 Woe to thee, Corozain! Woe to thee, Bethsaida! For if in Tyre and Sidon had been wrought the mighty works that have been wrought in you, they would have done penance long ago, sitting in sackcloth and ashes. 14 But it shall be more tolerable for Tyre and Sidon at the judgment than for you. 15 And thou, Capharnaum, which art exalted unto heaven, thou shalt be thrust down to hell. 16 He that heareth you heareth me: and he that despiseth you despiseth me: and he that despiseth me despiseth him that sent me. 17 And the seventy-two returned with joy, saying: Lord, the devils also are subject to us in thy name. 18 And he said to them: I saw Satan like lightning falling from heaven. 19 Behold, I have given you power to tread upon serpents and scorpions and upon all the power of the enemy: and nothing shall hurt you. 20 But yet rejoice not in this, that spirits are subject unto you: but rejoice in this, that your names are written in heaven. 21 In that same hour, he rejoiced in the Holy Ghost and said: I confess to thee, O Father, Lord of heaven and earth, because thou hast hidden these things from the wise and prudent and hast revealed them to little ones. Yea, Father, for so it hath seemed good in thy sight. 22 All things are delivered to me by my Father. And no one knoweth who the Son is, but the Father: and who the Father is, but the Son and to whom the Son will reveal him. 23 And turning to his disciples, he said: Blessed are the eyes that see the things which you see. 24 For I say to you that many prophets and kings have desired to see the things that you see and have not seen them; and to hear the things that you hear and have not heard them. 25 And behold a certain lawyer stood up, tempting him and saying, Master, what must I do to possess eternal life? 26 But he said to him: What is written in the law? How readest thou? 27 He answering, said: Thou shalt love the Lord thy God with thy whole heart and with thy whole soul and with all thy strength and with all thy mind: and thy neighbour as thyself. 28 And he said to him: Thou hast answered right. This do: and thou shalt live. 29 But he willing to justify himself, said to Jesus: And who is my neighbour? 30 And Jesus answering, said: A certain man went down from Jerusalem to Jericho and fell among robbers, who also stripped him and having wounded him went away, leaving him half dead. 31 And it chanced, that a certain priest went down the same way: and seeing him, passed by. 32 In like manner also a Levite, when he was near the place and saw him, passed by. 33 But a certain Samaritan, being on his journey, came near him: and seeing him, was moved with compassion: 34 And going up to him, bound up his wounds, pouring in oil and wine: and setting him upon his own beast, brought him to an inn and took care of him. 35 And the next day he took out two pence and gave to the host and said: Take care of him; and whatsoever thou shalt spend over and above, I, at my return, will repay thee. 36 Which of these three, in thy opinion, was neighbour to him that fell among the robbers? 37 But he said: He that shewed mercy to him. And Jesus said to him: Go, and do thou in like manner. 38 Now it came to pass, as they went, that he entered into a certain town: and a certain woman named Martha received him into her house. 39 And she had a sister called Mary. who, sitting also at the Lord’s feet, heard his word. 40 But Martha was busy about much serving. Who stood and said: Lord, hast thou no care that my sister hath left me alone to serve? Speak to her therefore, that she help me. 41 And the Lord answering, said to her: Martha, Martha, thou art careful and art troubled about many things: 42 But one thing is necessary. Mary hath chosen the best part, which shall not be taken away from her. 1 And it came to pass that as he was in a certain place praying, when he ceased, one of his disciples said to him: Lord, teach us to pray, as John also taught his disciples. 2 And he said to them: When you pray, say: Father, hallowed be thy name. Thy kingdom come. 3 Give us this day our daily bread. 4 And forgive us our sins, for we also forgive every one that is indebted to us. And lead us not into temptation. 5 And he said to them: Which of you shall have a friend and shall go to him at midnight and shall say to him: Friend, lend me three loaves, 6 Because a friend of mine is come off his journey to me and I have not what to set before him. 7 And he from within should answer and say: Trouble me not; the door is now shut, and my children are with me in bed. I cannot rise and give thee. 8 Yet if he shall continue knocking, I say to you, although he will not rise and give him because he is his friend; yet, because of his importunity, he will rise and give him as many as he needeth. 9 And I say to you: Ask, and it shall be given you: seek, and you shall find: knock, and it shall be opened to you. 10 For every one that asketh receiveth: and he that seeketh findeth: and to him that knocketh it shall be opened: 11 And which of you, if he ask his father bread, will he give him a stone? Or a fish, will he for a fish give him a serpent? 12 Or if he shall ask an egg, will he reach him a scorpion? 13 If you then, being evil, know how to give good gifts to your children, how much more will your Father from heaven give the good Spirit to them that ask him? 14 And he was casting out a devil: and the same was dumb. And when he had cast out the devil, the dumb spoke: and the multitudes, were in admiration at it. 15 But some of them said: He casteth out devils by Beelzebub, the prince of devils. 16 And others tempting, asked of him a sign from heaven. 17 But he seeing their thoughts, said to them: Every kingdom divided against itself shall be brought to desolation; and house upon house shall fall. 18 And if Satan also be divided against himself, how shall his kingdom stand? Because you say that through Beelzebub I cast out devils. 19 Now if I cast out devils by Beelzebub, by whom do your children cast them out? Therefore, they shall be your judges. 20 But if I by the finger of God cast out devils, doubtless the kingdom of God is come upon you. 21 When a strong man armed keepeth his court, those things are in peace which he possesseth. 22 But if a stronger than he come upon him and overcome him, he will take away all his armour wherein he trusted and will distribute his spoils. 23 He that is not with me is against me; and he that gathereth not with me scattereth. 24 When the unclean spirit is gone out of a man, he walketh through places without water, seeking rest: and not finding, he saith: I will return into my house whence I came out. 25 And when he is come, he findeth it swept and garnished. 26 Then he goeth and taketh with him seven other spirits more wicked than himself: and entering in they dwell there. And the last state of that man becomes worse than the first. 27 And it came to pass, as he spoke these things, a certain woman from the crowd, lifting up her voice, said to him: Blessed is the womb that bore thee and the paps that gave thee suck. 28 But he said: Yea rather, blessed are they who hear the word of God and keep it. 29 And the multitudes running together, he began to say: This generation is a wicked generation. It asketh a sign: and a sign shall not be given it, but the sign of Jonas the prophet. 30 For as Jonas was a sign to the Ninivites; so shall the Son of man also be to this generation. 31 The queen of the south shall rise in the judgment with the men of this generation and shall condemn them: because she came from the ends of the earth to hear the wisdom of Solomon. And behold more than Solomon here. 32 The men of Ninive shall rise in the judgment with this generation and shall condemn it; Because they did penance at the preaching of Jonas. And behold more than Jonas here. 33 No man lighteth a candle and putteth it in a hidden place, nor under a bushel: but upon a candlestick, that they that come in may see the light. 34 The light of thy body is thy eye. If thy eye be single, thy whole body will be lightsome: but if it be evil, thy body also will be darksome. 35 Take heed therefore that the light which is in thee be not darkness. 36 If then thy whole body be lightsome, having no part of darkness: the whole shall be lightsome and, as a bright lamp, shall enlighten thee. 37 And as he was speaking, a certain Pharisee prayed him that he would dine with him. And he going in, sat down to eat. 38 And the Pharisee began to say, thinking within himself, why he was not washed before dinner. 39 And the Lord said to him: Now you, Pharisees, make clean the outside of the cup and of the platter: but your inside is full of rapine and iniquity. 40 Ye fools, did not he that made that which is without make also that which is within? 41 But yet that which remaineth, give alms: and behold, all things are clean unto you. 42 But woe to you, Pharisees, because you tithe mint and rue and every herb and pass over judgment and the charity of God. Now these things you ought to have done, and not to leave the other undone. 43 Woe to you, Pharisees, because you love the uppermost seats in the synagogues and salutations in the marketplace. 44 Woe to you, because you are as sepulchres that appear not: and men that walk over are not aware. 45 And one of the lawyers answering, saith to him: Master, in saying these things, thou reproachest us also. 46 But he said: Woe to you lawyers also, because you load men with burdens which they cannot bear and you yourselves touch not the packs with one of your fingers. 47 Woe to you who build the monuments of the prophets: and your fathers killed them. 48 Truly you bear witness that you consent to the doings of your fathers. For they indeed killed them: and you build their sepulchres. 49 For this cause also the wisdom of God said: I will send to them prophets and apostles: and some of them they will kill and persecute. 50 That the blood of all the prophets which was shed from the foundation of the world may be required of this generation, 51 From the blood of Abel unto the blood of Zacharias, who was slain between the altar and the temple. Yea I say to you: It shall be required of this generation. 52 Woe to you lawyers, for you have taken away the key of knowledge. You yourselves have not entered in: and those that were entering in, you have hindered. 53 And as he was saying these things to them, the Pharisees and the lawyers began violently to urge him and to oppress his mouth about many things, 54 Lying in wait for him and seeking to catch something from his mouth, that they might accuse him. 1 And when great multitudes stood about him, so that they trod one upon another, he began to say to his disciples: Beware ye of the leaven of the Pharisees, which is hypocrisy. 2 For there is nothing covered that shall not be revealed: nor hidden that shall not be known. 3 For whatsoever things you have spoken in darkness shall be published in the light: and that which you have spoken in the ear in the chambers shall be preached on the housetops. 4 And I say to you, my friends: Be not afraid of them who kill the body and after that have no more that they can do. 5 But I will shew you whom you shall fear: Fear ye him who, after he hath killed, hath power to cast into hell. Yea, I say to you: Fear him. 6 Are not five sparrows sold for two farthings, and not one of them is forgotten before God? 7 Yea, the very hairs of your head are all numbered. Fear not therefore: you are of more value than many sparrows. 8 And I say to you: Whosoever shall confess me before men, him shall the Son of man also confess before the angels of God. 9 But he that shall deny me before men shall be denied before the angels of God. 10 And whosoever speaketh a word against the Son of man, it shall be forgiven him: but to him that shall blaspheme against the Holy Ghost, it shall not be forgiven. 11 And when they shall bring you into the synagogues and to magistrates and powers, be not solicitous how or what you shall answer, or what you shall say. 12 For the Holy Ghost shall teach you in the same hour what you must say. 13 And one of the multitude said to him: Master, speak to my brother that he divide the inheritance with me. 14 But he said to him: Man, who hath appointed me judge or divider over you? 15 And he said to them: Take heed and beware of all covetousness: for a man’s life doth not consist in the abundance of things which he possesseth. 16 And he spoke a similitude to them, saying: The land of a certain rich man brought forth plenty of fruits. 17 And he thought within himself, saying: What shall I do, because I have no room where to bestow my fruits? 18 And he said: This will I do: I will pull down my barns and will build greater: and into them will I gather all things that are grown to me and my goods. 19 And I will say to my soul: Soul, thou hast much goods laid up for many years. Take thy rest: eat, drink, make good cheer. 20 But God said to him: Thou fool, this night do they require thy soul of thee. And whose shall those things be which thou hast provided? 21 So is he that layeth up treasure for himself and is not rich towards God. 22 And he said to his disciples: Therefore I say to you: Be not solicitous for your life, what you shall eat, nor for your body, what you shall put on. 23 The life is more than the meat: and the body is more than the raiment. 24 Consider the ravens, for they sow not, neither do they reap, neither have they storehouse nor barn, and God feedeth them. How much are you more valuable

Bibel Johannes 1,6–13,38

6 There was a man sent from God, whose name was John. 7 This man came for a witness, to give testimony of the light, that all men might believe through him. 8 He was not the light, but was to give testimony of the light. 9 That was the true light, which enlighteneth every man that cometh into this world. 10 He was in the world: and the world was made by him: and the world knew him not. 11 He came unto his own: and his own received him not. 12 But as many as received him, he gave them power to be made the sons of God, to them that believe in his name. 13 Who are born, not of blood, nor of the will of the flesh, nor of the will of man, but of God. 14 And the Word was made flesh and dwelt among us (and we saw his glory, the glory as it were of the only begotten of the Father), full of grace and truth. 15 John beareth witness of him and crieth out, saying: This was he of whom I spoke: He that shall come after me is preferred before me: because he was before me. 16 And of his fulness we all have received: and grace for grace. 17 For the law was given by Moses: grace and truth came by Jesus Christ. 18 No man hath seen God at any time: the only begotten Son who is in the Bosom of the Father, he hath declared him. 19 And this is the testimony of John, when the Jews sent from Jerusalem priests and Levites to him, to ask him: Who art thou? 20 And he confessed and did not deny: and he confessed: I am not the Christ. 21 And they asked him: What then? Art thou Elias? And he said: I am not. Art thou the prophet? And he answered: No. 22 They said therefore unto him: Who art thou, that we may give an answer to them that sent us? What sayest thou of thyself? 23 He said: I am the voice of one crying in the wilderness, make straight the way of the Lord, as said the prophet Isaias. 24 And they that were sent were of the Pharisees. 25 And they asked him and said to him: Why then dost thou baptize, if thou be not Christ, nor Elias, nor the prophet? 26 John answered them, saying: I baptize with water: but there hath stood one in the midst of you, whom you know not. 27 The same is he that shall come after me, who is preferred before me: the latchet of whose shoe I am not worthy to loose. 28 These things were done in Bethania, beyond the Jordan, where John was baptizing. 29 The next day, John saw Jesus coming to him; and he saith: Behold the Lamb of God. Behold him who taketh away the sin of the world. 30 This is he of whom I said: After me there cometh a man, who is preferred before me: because he was before me. 31 And I knew him not: but that he may be made manifest in Israel, therefore am I come baptizing with water. 32 And John gave testimony, saying: I saw the Spirit coming down, as a dove from heaven; and he remained upon him. 33 And I knew him not: but he who sent me to baptize with water said to me: He upon whom thou shalt see the Spirit descending and remaining upon him, he it is that baptizeth with the Holy Ghost. 34 And I saw: and I gave testimony that this is the Son of God. 35 The next day again John stood and two of his disciples. 36 And beholding Jesus walking, he saith: Behold the Lamb of God. 37 And the two disciples heard him speak: and they followed Jesus. 38 And Jesus turning and seeing them following him, saith to them: What seek you? Who said to him: Rabbi (which is to say, being interpreted, Master), where dwellest thou? 39 He saith to them: Come and see. They came and saw where he abode: and they stayed with him that day. Now it was about the tenth hour. 40 And Andrew, the brother of Simon Peter, was one of the two who had heard of John and followed him. 41 He findeth first his brother Simon and saith to him: We have found the Messias, which is, being interpreted, the Christ. 42 And he brought him to Jesus. And Jesus looking upon him, said: Thou art Simon the son of Jona. Thou shalt be called Cephas, which is interpreted Peter. 43 On the following day, he would go forth into Galilee: and he findeth Philip, And Jesus saith to him: follow me. 44 Now Philip was of Bethsaida, the city of Andrew and Peter. 45 Philip findeth Nathanael and saith to him: We have found him of whom Moses, in the law and the prophets did write, Jesus the son of Joseph of Nazareth. 46 And Nathanael said to him: Can any thing of good come from Nazareth? Philip saith to him: Come and see. 47 Jesus saw Nathanael coming to him and he saith of him: Behold an Israelite indeed, in whom there is no guile. 48 Nathanael saith to him: Whence knowest thou me? Jesus answered and said to him: Before that Philip called thee, when thou wast under the fig tree, I saw thee. 49 Nathanael answered him and said: Rabbi: Thou art the Son of God. Thou art the King of Israel. 50 Jesus answered and said to him: Because I said unto thee, I saw thee under the fig tree, thou believest: greater things than these shalt thou see. 51 And he saith to him: Amen, amen, I say to you, you shall see the heaven opened and the angels of God ascending and descending upon the Son of man. 1 And the third day, there was a marriage in Cana of Galilee: and the mother of Jesus was there. 2 And Jesus also was invited, and his disciples, to the marriage. 3 And the wine failing, the mother of Jesus saith to him: They have no wine. 4 And Jesus saith to her: Woman, what is that to me and to thee? My hour is not yet come. 5 His mother saith to the waiters: Whatsoever he shall say to you, do ye. 6 Now there were set there six waterpots of stone, according to the manner of the purifying of the Jews, containing two or three measures apiece. 7 Jesus saith to them: Fill the waterpots with water. And they filled them up to the brim. 8 And Jesus saith to them: Draw out now and carry to the chief steward of the feast. And they carried it. 9 And when the chief steward had tasted the water made wine and knew not whence it was, but the waiters knew who had drawn the water: the chief steward calleth the bridegroom, 10 And saith to him: Every man at first setteth forth good wine, and when men have well drunk, then that which is worse. But thou hast kept the good wine until now. 11 This beginning of miracles did Jesus in Cana of Galilee and manifested his glory. And his disciples believed in him. 12 After this, he went down to Capharnaum, he and his mother and his brethren and his disciples: and they remained there not many days. 13 And the pasch of the Jews was at hand: and Jesus went up to Jerusalem. 14 And he found in the temple them that sold oxen and sheep and doves, and the changers of money sitting. 15 And when he had made, as it were, a scourge of little cords, he drove them all out of the temple, the sheep also and the oxen: and the money of the changers he poured out, and the tables he overthrew. 16 And to them that sold doves he said: Take these things hence, and make not the house of my Father a house of traffic. 17 And his disciples remembered, that it was written: The zeal of thy house hath eaten me up. 18 The Jews, therefore, answered, and said to him: What sign dost thou shew unto us, seeing thou dost these things? 19 Jesus answered and said to them: Destroy this temple; and in three days I will raise it up. 20 The Jews then said: Six and forty years was this temple in building; and wilt thou raise it up in three days? 21 But he spoke of the temple of his body. 22 When therefore he was risen again from the dead, his disciples remembered that he had said this: and they believed the scripture and the word that Jesus had said. 23 Now when he was at Jerusalem, at the pasch, upon the festival day, many believed in his name, seeing his signs which he did. 24 But Jesus did not trust himself unto them: for that he knew all men, 25 And because he needed not that any should give testimony of man: for he knew what was in man. 1 And there was a man of the Pharisees, named Nicodemus, a ruler of the Jews. 2 This man came to Jesus by night and said to him: Rabbi, we know that thou art come a teacher from God; for no man can do these signs which thou dost, unless God be with him. 3 Jesus answered and said to him: Amen, amen, I say to thee, unless a man be born again, he cannot see the kingdom of God. 4 Nicodemus saith to him: How can a man be born when he is old? Can he enter a second time into his mother’s womb and be born again? 5 Jesus answered: Amen, amen, I say to thee, unless a man be born again of water and the Holy Ghost, he cannot enter into the kingdom of God. 6 That which is born of the flesh is flesh: and that which is born of the Spirit is spirit. 7 Wonder not that I said to thee: You must be born again. 8 The Spirit breatheth where he will and thou hearest his voice: but thou knowest not whence he cometh and whither he goeth. So is every one that is born of the Spirit. 9 Nicodemus answered and said to him: How can these things be done? 10 Jesus answered and said to him: Art thou a master in Israel, and knowest not these things? 11 Amen, amen, I say to thee that we speak what we know and we testify what we have seen: and you receive not our testimony. 12 If I have spoken to you earthly things, and you believe not: how will you believe, if I shall speak to you heavenly things? 13 And no man hath ascended into heaven, but he that descended from heaven, the Son of man who is in heaven. 14 And as Moses lifted up the serpent in the desert, so must the Son of man be lifted up: 15 That whosoever believeth in him may not perish, but may have life everlasting. 16 For God so loved the world, as to give his only begotten Son: that whosoever believeth in him may not perish, but may have life everlasting. 17 For God sent not his Son into the world, to judge the world: but that the world may be saved by him. 18 He that believeth in him is not judged. But he that doth not believe is already judged: because he believeth not in the name of the only begotten Son of God. 19 And this is the judgment: Because the light is come into the world and men loved darkness rather than the light: for their works were evil. 20 For every one that doth evil hateth the light and cometh not to the light, that his works may not be reproved. 21 But he that doth truth cometh to the light, that his works may be made manifest: because they are done in God. 22 After these things, Jesus and his disciples came into the land of Judea: and there he abode with them and baptized. 23 And John also was baptizing in Ennon near Salim: because there was much water there. And they came and were baptized. 24 For John was not yet cast into prison. 25 And there arose a question between some of John’s disciples and the Jews, concerning purification. 26 And they came to John and said to him: Rabbi, he that was with thee beyond the Jordan, to whom thou gavest testimony: behold, he baptizeth and all men come to him. 27 John answered and said: A man cannot receive any thing, unless it be given him from heaven. 28 You yourselves do bear me witness that I said that I am not Christ, but that I am sent before him. 29 He that hath the bride is the bridegroom: but the friend of the bridegroom, who standeth and heareth Him, rejoiceth with joy because of the bridegroom’s voice. This my joy therefore is fulfilled. 30 He must increase: but I must decrease. 31 He that cometh from above is above all. He that is of the earth, of the earth he is, and of the earth he speaketh. He that cometh from heaven is above all. 32 And what he hath seen and heard, that he testifieth: and no man receiveth his testimony. 33 He that hath received his testimony hath set to his seal that God is true. 34 For he whom God hath sent speaketh the words of God: for God doth not give the Spirit by measure. 35 The Father loveth the Son: and he hath given all things into his hand. 36 He that believeth in the Son hath life everlasting: but he that believeth not the Son shall not see life: but the wrath of God abideth on him. 1 When Jesus therefore understood the Pharisees had heard that Jesus maketh more disciples and baptizeth more than John 2 (Though Jesus himself did not baptize, but his disciples), 3 He left Judea and went again into Galilee. 4 And he was of necessity to pass through Samaria. 5 He cometh therefore to a city of Samaria, which is called Sichar, near the land which Jacob gave to his son Joseph. 6 Now Jacob’s well was there. Jesus therefore, being wearied with his journey, sat thus on the well. It was about the sixth hour. 7 There cometh a woman of Samaria, to draw water. Jesus saith to her: Give me to drink. 8 For his disciples were gone into the city to buy meats. 9 Then that Samaritan woman saith to him: How dost thou, being a Jew; ask of me to drink, who am a Samaritan woman? For the Jews do not communicate with the Samaritans. 10 Jesus answered and said to her: If thou didst know the gift of God and who he is that saith to thee: Give me to drink; thou perhaps wouldst have asked of him, and he would have given thee living water. 11 The woman saith to him: Sir, thou hast nothing wherein to draw, and the well is deep. From whence then hast thou living water? 12 Art thou greater than our father Jacob, who gave us the well and drank thereof, himself and his children and his cattle? 13 Jesus answered and said to her: Whosoever drinketh of this water shall thirst again: but he that shall drink of the water that I will give him shall not thirst for ever. 14 But the water that I will give him shall become in him a fountain of water, springing up into life everlasting. 15 The woman said to him: Sir, give me this water, that I may not thirst, nor come hither to draw. 16 Jesus saith to her: Go, call thy husband, and come hither. 17 The woman answered and said: I have no husband. Jesus said to her: Thou hast said well: I have no husband. 18 For thou hast had five husbands: and he whom thou now hast is not thy husband. This, thou hast said truly. 19 The woman saith to him: Sir, I perceive that thou art a prophet. 20 Our fathers adored on this mountain: and you say that at Jerusalem is the place where men must adore. 21 Jesus saith to her: Woman, believe me that the hour cometh, when you shall neither on this mountain, nor in Jerusalem, adore the Father. 22 You adore that which you know not: we adore that which we know. For salvation is of the Jews. 23 But the hour cometh and now is, when the true adorers shall adore the Father in spirit and in truth. For the Father also seeketh such to adore him. 24 God is a spirit: and they that adore him must adore him in spirit and in truth. 25 The woman saith to him: I know that the Messias cometh (who is called Christ): therefore, when he is come, he will tell us all things. 26 Jesus saith to her: I am he, who am speaking with thee. 27 And immediately his disciples came. And they wondered that he talked with the woman. Yet no man said: What seekest thou? Or: Why talkest thou with her? 28 The woman

Johannes 15,1–21,23

1 I am the true vine: and my Father is the husbandman. 2 Every branch in me that beareth not fruit, he will take away: and every one that beareth fruit, he will purge it, that it may bring forth more fruit. 3 Now you are clean, by reason of the word which I have spoken to you. 4 Abide in me: and I in you. As the branch cannot bear fruit of itself, unless it abide in the vine, so neither can you, unless you abide in me. 5 I am the vine: you the branches. He that abideth in me, and I in him, the same beareth much fruit: for without me you can do nothing. 6 If any one abide not in me, he shall be cast forth as a branch and shall wither: and they shall gather him up and cast him into the fire: and he burneth. 7 If you abide in me and my words abide in you, you shall ask whatever you will: and it shall be done unto you. 8 In this is my Father glorified: that you bring forth very much fruit and become my disciples. 9 As the Father hath loved me, I also have loved you. Abide in my love. 10 If you keep my commandments, you shall abide in my love: as I also have kept my Father’s commandments and do abide in his love. 11 These things I have spoken to you, that my joy may be in you, and your joy may be filled. 12 This is my commandment, that you love one another, as I have loved you. 13 Greater love than this no man hath, that a man lay down his life for his friends. 14 You are my friends, if you do the things that I command you. 15 I will not now call you servants: for the servant knoweth not what his lord doth. But I have called you friends: because all things, whatsoever I have heard of my Father, I have made known to you. 16 You have not chosen me: but I have chosen you; and have appointed you, that you should go and should bring forth fruit; and your fruit should remain: that whatsoever you shall ask of the Father in my name, he may give it you. 17 These things I command you, that you love one another. 18 If the world hate you, know ye that it hath hated me before you. 19 If you had been of the world, the world would love its own: but because you are not of the world, but I have chosen you out of the world, therefore the world hateth you. 20 Remember my word that I said to you: The servant is not greater than his master. If they have persecuted me, they will also persecute you. If they have kept my word, they will keep yours also. 21 But all these things they will do to you for my name’s sake: because they know not him that sent me. 22 If I had not come and spoken to them, they would not have sin: but now they have no excuse for their sin. 23 He that hateth me hateth my Father also. 24 If I had not done among them the works that no other man hath done, they would not have sin: but now they have both seen and hated both me and my Father. 25 But that the word may be fulfilled which is written in their law: they hated me without cause. 26 But when the Paraclete cometh, whom I will send you from the Father, the Spirit of truth, who proceedeth from the Father, he shall give testimony of me. 27 And you shall give testimony, because you are with me from the beginning. 1 These things have I spoken to you, that you may not be scandalized. 2 They will put you out of the synagogues: yea, the hour cometh, that whosoever killeth you will think that he doth a service to God. 3 And these things will they do to you; because they have not known the Father nor me. 4 But these things I have told you, that when the hour shall come, you may remember that I told you of them. 5 But I told you not these things from the beginning, because I was with you. And now I go to him that sent me, and none of you asketh me: Whither goest thou? 6 But because I have spoken these things to you, sorrow hath filled your heart. 7 But I tell you the truth: it is expedient to you that I go. For if I go not, the Paraclete will not come to you: but if I go, I will send him to you. 8 And when he is come, he will convince the world of sin and of justice and of judgment. 9 Of sin: because they believed not in me. 10 And of justice: because I go to the Father: and you shall see me no longer. 11 And of judgment: because the prince of this world is already judged. 12 I have yet many things to say to you: but you cannot bear them now. 13 But when he, the Spirit of truth, is come, he will teach you all truth. For he shall not speak of himself: but what things soever he shall hear, he shall speak. And the things that are to come, he shall shew you. 14 He shall glorify me: because he shall receive of mine and shall shew it to you. 15 All things whatsoever the Father hath are mine. Therefore I said that he shall receive of me and shew it to you. 16 A little while, and now you shall not see me: and again a little while, and you shall see me: because I go to the Father. 17 Then some of his disciples said one to another: What is this that he saith to us: A little while, and you shall not see me: and again a little while, and you shall see me, and, Because I go to the Father? 18 They said therefore: What is this that he saith, A little while? We know not what he speaketh. 19 And Jesus knew that they had a mind to ask him. And he said to them: Of this do you inquire among yourselves, because I said: A little while, and you shall not see me; and again a little while, and you shall see me? 20 Amen, amen, I say to you, that you shall lament and weep, but the world shall rejoice: and you shall be made sorrowful, but your sorrow shall be turned into joy. 21 A woman, when she is in labour, hath sorrow, because her hour is come; but when she hath brought forth the child, she remembereth no more the anguish, for joy that a man is born into the world. 22 So also you now indeed have sorrow: but I will see you again and your heart shall rejoice. And your joy no man shall take from you. 23 And in that day you shall not ask me any thing. Amen, amen, I say to you: if you ask the Father any thing in my name, he will give it you. 24 Hitherto, you have not asked any thing in my name. Ask, and you shall receive; that your joy may be full. 25 These things I have spoken to you in proverbs. The hour cometh when I will no longer speak to you in proverbs, but will shew you plainly of the Father. 26 In that day, you shall ask in my name: and I say not to you that I will ask the Father for you. 27 For the Father himself loveth you, because you have loved me and have believed that I came out from God. 28 I came forth from the Father and am come into the world: again I leave the world and I go to the Father. 29 His disciples say to him: Behold, now thou speakest plainly and speakest no proverb. 30 Now we know that thou knowest all things and thou needest not that any man should ask thee. By this we believe that thou camest forth from God. 31 Jesus answered them: Do you now believe? 32 Behold, the hour cometh, and it is now come, that you shall be scattered every man to his own and shall leave me alone. And yet I am not alone, because the Father is with me. 33 These things I have spoken to you, that in me you may have peace. In the world you shall have distress. But have confidence. I have overcome the world. 1 These things Jesus spoke: and lifting up his eyes to heaven, he said: the hour is come. Glorify thy Son, that thy Son may glorify thee. 2 As thou hast given him power over all flesh, that he may give eternal life to all whom thou hast given him. 3 Now this is eternal life: That they may know thee, the only true God, and Jesus Christ, whom thou hast sent. 4 I have glorified thee on the earth; I have finished the work which thou gavest me to do. 5 And now glorify thou me, O Father, with thyself, with the glory which I had, before the world was, with thee. 6 I have manifested thy name to the men whom thou hast given me out of the world. Thine they were: and to me thou gavest them. And they have kept thy word. 7 Now they have known that all things which thou hast given me are from thee: 8 Because the words which thou gavest me, I have given to them. And they have received them and have known in very deed that I came out from thee: and they have believed that thou didst send me. 9 I pray for them. I pray not for the world, but for them whom thou hast given me: because they are thine. 10 And all my things are thine, and thine are mine: and I am glorified in them. 11 And now I am not in the world, and these are in the world, and I come to thee. Holy Father, keep them in thy name whom thou hast given me: that they may be one, as we also are. 12 While I was with them, I kept them in thy name. Those whom thou gavest me have I kept: and none of them is lost, but the son of perdition: that the scripture may be fulfilled. 13 And now I come to thee: and these things I speak in the world, that they may have my joy filled in themselves. 14 I have given them thy word, and the world hath hated them: because they are not of the world, as I also am not of the world. 15 I pray not that thou shouldst take them out of the world, but that thou shouldst keep them from evil. 16 They are not of the world, as I also am not of the world. 17 Sanctify them in truth. Thy word is truth. 18 As thou hast sent me into the world, I also have sent them into the world. 19 And for them do I sanctify myself, that they also may be sanctified in truth. 20 And not for them only do I pray, but for them also who through their word shall believe in me. 21 That they all may be one, as thou, Father, in me, and I in thee; that they also may be one in us: that the world may believe that thou hast sent me. 22 And the glory which thou hast given me, I have given to them: that, they may be one, as we also are one. 23 I in them, and thou in me: that they may be made perfect in one: and the world may know that thou hast sent me and hast loved them, as thou hast also loved me. 24 Father, I will that where I am, they also whom thou hast given me may be with me: that they may see my glory which thou hast given me, because thou hast loved me before the creation of the world. 25 Just Father, the world hath not known thee: but I have known thee. And these have known that thou hast sent me. 26 And I have made known thy name to them and will make it known: that the love wherewith thou hast loved me may be in them, and I in them. 1 When Jesus had said these things, he went forth with his disciples over the brook Cedron, where there was a garden, into which he entered with his disciples. 2 And Judas also, who betrayed him, knew the place: because Jesus had often resorted thither together with his disciples. 3 Judas therefore having received a band of soldiers and servants from the chief priests and the Pharisees, cometh thither with lanterns and torches and weapons. 4 Jesus therefore, knowing all things that should come upon him, went forth and said to them: Whom seek ye? 5 They answered him: Jesus of Nazareth. Jesus saith to them: I am he. And Judas also, who betrayed him, stood with them. 6 As soon therefore as he had said to them: I am he; they went backward and fell to the ground. 7 Again therefore he asked them: Whom seek ye? And they said: Jesus of Nazareth. 8 Jesus answered: I have told you that I am he. If therefore you seek me, let these go their way, 9 That the word might be fulfilled which he said: Of them whom thou hast given me, I have not lost any one. 10 Then Simon Peter, having a sword, drew it and struck the servant of the high priest and cut off his right ear. And the name of the servant was Malchus. 11 Jesus therefore said to Peter: Put up thy sword into the scabbard. The chalice which my father hath given me, shall I not drink it? 12 Then the band and the tribune and the servants of the Jews took Jesus and bound him. 13 And they led him away to Annas first, for he was father-in-law to Caiphas, who was the high priest of that year. 14 Now Caiphas was he who had given the counsel to the Jews: That it was expedient that one man should die for the people. 15 And Simon Peter followed Jesus: and so did another disciple. And that disciple was known to the high priest and went in with Jesus into the court of the high priest. 16 But Peter stood at the door without. The other disciple therefore, who was known to the high priest, went out and spoke to the portress and brought in Peter. 17 The maid therefore that was portress saith to Peter: Art not thou also one of this man’s disciple? He saith I am not. 18 Now the servants and ministers stood at a fire of coals, because it was cold, and warmed themselves. And with them was Peter also, standing and warming himself. 19 The high priest therefore asked Jesus of his disciples and of his doctrine. 20 Jesus answered him: I have spoken openly to the world. I have always taught in the synagogue and in the temple, whither all the Jews resort: and in secret I have spoken nothing. 21 Why askest thou me? Ask them who have heard what I have spoken unto them. Behold they know what things I have said. 22 And when he had said these things, one of the servants standing by gave Jesus a blow, saying: Answerest thou the high priest so? 23 Jesus answered him: If I have spoken evil, give testimony of the evil; but if well, why strikest thou me? 24 And Annas sent him bound to Caiphas the high priest. 25 And Simon Peter was standing and warming himself. They said therefore to him: Art not thou also one of his disciples? He denied it and said: I am not. 26 One of the servants of the high priest (a kinsman to him whose ear Peter cut off) saith to him: Did not I see thee in the garden with him? 27 Again therefore Peter denied: and immediately the cock crew. 28 Then they led Jesus from Caiphas to the governor’s hall. And it was morning: and they went not into the hall, that they might not be defiled, but that they might eat the pasch. 29 Pilate therefore went out to them, and said: What accusation bring you against this man? 30 They answered and said to him: If he were not a malefactor, we would not have delivered him up to thee. 31 Pilate therefore said to them: Take him you, and judge him according to your law. The Jews therefore said to him: It is not lawful for us to put any man to death. 32 That the word of Jesus might be fulfilled, which he said, signifying what death he should die. 33 Pilate therefore went into the hall again and called Jesus and said to him: Art thou the king of the Jews? 34 Jesus answered: Sayest thou this thing of thyself, or have others told it thee of me? 35 Pilate answered: Am I a Jew? Thy own nation and the chief priests have delivered thee up to me. What hast thou done? 36 Jesus answered: My kingdom is not of this world. If my kingdom were of this world, my servants would certainly strive that I should not be delivered to the Jews: but now my kingdom is not from hence. 37 Pilate therefore said to him: Art thou a king then? Jesus answered: Thou sayest that

Apostelgeschichte 1,1–19

1 The former treatise I made, O Theophilus, of all things which Jesus began to do and to teach, 2 Until the day on which, giving commandments by the Holy Ghost to the apostles whom he had chosen, he was taken up. 3 To whom also he shewed himself alive after his passion, by many proofs, for forty days appearing to them, and speaking of the kingdom of God. 4 And eating together with them, he commanded them, that they should not depart from Jerusalem, but should wait for the promise of the Father, which you have heard (saith he) by my mouth. 5 For John indeed baptized with water: but you shall be baptized with the Holy Ghost, not many days hence. 6 They therefore who were come together, asked him, saying: Lord, wilt thou at this time restore again the kingdom of Israel? 7 But he said to them: It is not for you to know the time or moments, which the Father hath put in his own power: 8 But you shall receive the power of the Holy Ghost coming upon you, and you shall be witnesses unto me in Jerusalem, and in all Judea, and Samaria, and even to the uttermost part of the earth. 9 And when he had said these things, while they looked on, he was raised up: and a cloud received him out of their sight. 10 And while they were beholding him going up to heaven, behold two men stood by them in white garments. 11 Who also said: Ye men of Galilee, why stand you looking up to heaven? This Jesus who is taken up from you into heaven, shall so come as you have seen him going into heaven. 12 Then they returned to Jerusalem from the mount that is called Olivet, which is nigh Jerusalem, within a sabbath day’s journey. 13 And when they were come in, they went up into an upper room, where abode Peter and John, James and Andrew, Philip and Thomas, Bartholomew and Matthew, James of Alpheus and Simon Zelotes and Jude the brother of James. 14 All these were persevering with one mind in prayer with the women, and Mary the mother of Jesus, and with his brethren. 15 In those days Peter rising up in the midst of the brethren, said (now the number of persons together was about an hundred and twenty): 16 Men, brethren, the scripture must needs be fulfilled, which the Holy Ghost spoke before by the mouth of David concerning Judas, who was the leader of them that apprehended Jesus: 17 Who was numbered with us, and had obtained part of this ministry. 18 And he indeed hath possessed a field of the reward of iniquity, and being hanged, burst asunder in the midst: and all his bowels gushed out. 19 And it became known to all the inhabitants of Jerusalem: so that the same field was called in their tongue, Haceldama, that is to say, The field of blood.

1. Korinther 15,6–7

6 Then was he seen by more than five hundred brethren at once: of whom many remain until this present, and some are fallen asleep. 7 After that, he was seen by James: then by all the apostles.

Matthäus 1,18–19,22

18 Now the generation of Christ was in this wise. When as his mother Mary was espoused to Joseph, before they came together, she was found with child, of the Holy Ghost. 19 Whereupon Joseph her husband, being a just man, and not willing publicly to expose her, was minded to put her away privately. 20 But while he thought on these things, behold the Angel of the Lord appeared to him in his sleep, saying: Joseph, son of David, fear not to take unto thee Mary thy wife, for that which is conceived in her, is of the Holy Ghost. 21 And she shall bring forth a son: and thou shalt call his name Jesus. For he shall save his people from their sins. 22 Now all this was done that it might be fulfilled which the Lord spoke by the prophet, saying: 23 Behold a virgin shall be with child, and bring forth a son, and they shall call his name Emmanuel, which being interpreted is, God with us. 24 And Joseph rising up from sleep, did as the angel of the Lord had commanded him, and took unto him his wife. 25 And he knew her not till she brought forth her first born son: and he called his name Jesus. 1 When Jesus therefore was born in Bethlehem of Juda, in the days of king Herod, behold, there came wise men from the East to Jerusalem, 2 Saying: Where is he that is born king of the Jews? For we have seen his star in the East, and are come to adore him. 3 And king Herod hearing this, was troubled, and all Jerusalem with him. 4 And assembling together all the chief priests and the scribes of the people, he inquired of them where Christ should be born. 5 But they said to him: In Bethlehem of Juda. For so it is written by the prophet: 6 And thou Bethlehem the land of Juda art not the least among the princes of Juda: for out of thee shall come forth the captain that shall rule my people Israel. 7 Then Herod, privately calling the wise men, learned diligently of them the time of the star which appeared to them; 8 And sending them into Bethlehem, said: Go and diligently inquire after the child, and when you have found him, bring me word again, that I also may come and adore him. 9 Who having heard the king, went their way; and behold the star which they had seen in the East, went before them, until it came and stood over where the child was. 10 And seeing the star they rejoiced with exceeding great joy. 11 And entering into the house, they found the child with Mary his mother, and falling down they adored him: and opening their treasures, they offered him gifts; gold, frankincense, and myrrh. 12 And having received an answer in sleep that they should not return to Herod, they went back another way into their country. 13 And after they were departed, behold an angel of the Lord appeared in sleep to Joseph, saying: Arise, and take the child and his mother, and fly into Egypt: and be there until I shall tell thee. For it will come to pass that Herod will seek the child to destroy him. 14 Who arose, and took the child and his mother by night, and retired into Egypt: and he was there until the death of Herod: 15 That it might be fulfilled which the Lord spoke by the prophet, saying: Out of Egypt have I called my son. 16 Then Herod perceiving that he was deluded by the wise men, was exceeding angry: and sending killed all the menchildren that were in Bethlehem, and in all the borders thereof, from two years old and under, according to the time which he had diligently inquired of the wise men. 17 Then was fulfilled that which was spoken by Jeremias the prophet, saying: 18 A voice in Rama was heard, lamentation and great mourning; Rachel bewailing her children, and would not be comforted, because they are not. 19 But when Herod was dead, behold an angel of the Lord appeared in sleep to Joseph in Egypt, 20 Saying: Arise, and take the child and his mother, and go into the land of Israel. For they are dead that sought the life of the child. 21 Who arose, and took the child and his mother, and came into the land of Israel. 22 But hearing that Archelaus reigned in Judea in the room of Herod his father, he was afraid to go thither: and being warned in sleep retired into the quarters of Galilee. 23 And coming he dwelt in a city called Nazareth: that it might be fulfilled which was said by the prophets: That he shall be called a Nazarene. 1 And in those days cometh John the Baptist preaching in the desert of Judea. 2 And saying: Do penance: for the kingdom of heaven is at hand. 3 For this is he that was spoken of by Isaias the prophet, saying: A voice of one crying in the desert, Prepare ye the way of the Lord, make straight his paths. 4 And the same John had his garment of camel’s hair, and a leathern girdle about his loins: and his meat was locusts and wild honey. 5 Then went out to him Jerusalem and all Judea, and all the country about Jordan: 6 And were baptized by him in the Jordan, confessing their sins. 7 And seeing many of the Pharisees and Sadducees coming to his baptism, he said to them: Ye brood of vipers, who hath shewed you to flee from the wrath to come? 8 Bring forth therefore fruit worthy of penance. 9 And think not to say within yourselves, We have Abraham for our father. For I tell you that God is able of these stones to raise up children to Abraham. 10 For now the axe is laid to the root of the trees. Every tree therefore that doth not yield good fruit, shall be cut down, and cast into the fire. 11 I indeed baptize you in water unto penance, but he that shall come after me, is mightier than I, whose shoes I am not worthy to bear: he shall baptize you in the Holy Ghost and fire. 12 Whose fan is in his hand, and he will thoroughly cleanse his floor and gather his wheat into the barn; but the chaff he will burn with unquenchable fire. 13 Then cometh Jesus from Galilee to the Jordan, unto John, to be baptized by him. 14 But John stayed him, saying: I ought to be baptized by thee, and comest thou to me? 15 And Jesus answering, said to him: Suffer it to be so now. For so it becometh us to fulfil all justice. Then he suffered him. 16 And Jesus being baptized, forthwith came out of the water: and lo, the heavens were opened to him: and he saw the Spirit of God descending as a dove, and coming upon him. 17 And behold a voice from heaven saying: This is my beloved Son, in whom I am well pleased. 1 Then Jesus was led by the spirit into the desert, to be tempted by the devil. 2 And when he had fasted forty days and forty nights, afterwards he was hungry. 3 And the tempter coming said to him: If thou be the Son of God, command that these stones be made bread. 4 Who answered and said: It is written, Not in bread alone doth man live, but in every word that proceedeth from the mouth of God. 5 Then the devil took him up into the holy city, and set him upon the pinnacle of the temple, 6 And said to him: If thou be the Son of God, cast thyself down, for it is written: That he hath given his angels charge over thee, and in their hands shall they bear thee up, lest perhaps thou dash thy foot against a stone. 7 Jesus said to him: It is written again: Thou shalt not tempt the Lord thy God. 8 Again the devil took him up into a very high mountain, and shewed him all the kingdoms of the world, and the glory of them, 9 And said to him: All these will I give thee, if falling down thou wilt adore me. 10 Then Jesus saith to him: Begone, Satan: for it is written: The Lord thy God shalt thou adore, and him only shalt thou serve. 11 Then the devil left him; and behold angels came and ministered to him. 12 And when Jesus had heard that John was delivered up, he retired into Galilee: 13 And leaving the city Nazareth, he came and dwelt in Capharnaum on the sea coast, in the borders of Zabulon and of Nephthalim; 14 That it might be fulfilled which was said by Isaias the prophet: 15 Land of Zabulon and land of Nephthalim, the way of the sea beyond the Jordan, Galilee of the Gentiles: 16 The people that sat in darkness, hath seen great light: and to them that sat in the region of the shadow of death, light is sprung up. 17 From that time Jesus began to preach, and to say: Do penance, for the kingdom of heaven is at hand. 18 And Jesus walking by the sea of Galilee, saw two brethren, Simon who is called Peter, and Andrew his brother, casting a net into the sea (for they were fishers). 19 And he saith to them: Come ye after me, and I will make you to be fishers of men. 20 And they immediately leaving their nets, followed him. 21 And going on from thence, he saw other two brethren, James the son of Zebedee, and John his brother, in a ship with Zebedee their father, mending their nets: and he called them. 22 And they forthwith left their nets and father, and followed him. 23 And Jesus went about all Galilee, teaching in their synagogues, and preaching the gospel of the kingdom: and healing all manner of sickness and every infirmity, among the people. 24 And his fame went throughout all Syria, and they presented to him all sick people that were taken with divers diseases and torments, and such as were possessed by devils, and lunatics, and those that had the palsy, and he cured them: 25 And much people followed him from Galilee, and from Decapolis, and from Jerusalem, and from Judea, and from beyond the Jordan. 1 And seeing the multitudes, he went up into a mountain, and when he was set down, his disciples came unto him. 2 And opening his mouth he taught them, saying: 3 Blessed are the poor in spirit: for theirs is the kingdom of heaven. 4 Blessed are the meek: for they shall possess the land. 5 Blessed are they that mourn: for they shall be comforted. 6 Blessed are they that hunger and thirst after justice: for they shall have their fill. 7 Blessed are the merciful: for they shall obtain mercy. 8 Blessed are the clean of heart: they shall see God. 9 Blessed are the peacemakers: for they shall be called the children of God. 10 Blessed are they that suffer persecution for justice’ sake: for theirs is the kingdom of heaven. 11 Blessed are ye when they shall revile you, and persecute you, and speak all that is evil against you, untruly, for my sake: 12 Be glad and rejoice for your reward is very great in heaven. For so they persecuted the prophets that were before you. 13 You are the salt of the earth. But if the salt lose its savour, wherewith shall it be salted? It is good for nothing anymore but to be cast out, and to be trodden on by men. 14 You are the light of the world. A city seated on a mountain cannot be hid. 15 Neither do men light a candle and put it under a bushel, but upon a candlestick, that it may shine to all that are in the house. 16 So let your light shine before men, that they may see your good works, and glorify your Father who is in heaven. 17 Do not think that I am come to destroy the law, or the prophets. I am not come to destroy, but to fulfil. 18 For amen I say unto you, till heaven and earth pass, one jot, or one tittle shall not pass of the law, till all be fulfilled. 19 He therefore that shall break one of these least commandments, and shall so teach men shall be called the least in the kingdom of heaven. But he that shall do and teach, he shall be called great in the kingdom of heaven. 20 For I tell you, that unless your justice abound more than that of the scribes and Pharisees, you shall not enter into the kingdom of heaven. 21 You have heard that it was said to them of old: Thou shalt not kill. And whosoever shall kill, shall be in danger of the judgment. 22 But I say to you, that whosoever is angry with his brother, shall be in danger of the judgment. And whosoever shall say to his brother, Raca, shall be in danger of the council. And whosoever shall say, Thou fool, shall be in danger of hell fire. 23 If therefore thou offer thy gift at the altar, and there thou remember that thy brother hath anything against thee; 24 Leave there thy offering before the altar, and go first to be reconciled to thy brother, and then coming thou shalt offer thy gift. 25 Be at agreement with thy adversary betimes, whilst thou art in the way with him: lest perhaps the adversary deliver thee to the judge, and the judge deliver thee to the officer, and thou be cast into prison. 26 Amen I say to thee, thou shalt not go out from thence till thou repay the last farthing. 27 You have heard that it was said to them of old: Thou shalt not commit adultery. 28 But I say to you, that whosoever shall look on a woman to lust after her, hath already committed adultery with her in his heart. 29 And if thy right eye scandalize thee, pluck it out and cast it from thee. For it is expedient for thee that one of thy members should perish, rather than thy whole body be cast into hell. 30 And if thy right hand scandalize thee, cut it off, and cast it from thee: for it is expedient for thee that one of thy members should perish, rather than that thy whole body go into hell. 31 And it hath been said, Whosoever shall put away his wife, let him give her a bill of divorce. 32 But I say to you, that whosoever shall put away his wife, excepting the cause of fornication, maketh her to commit adultery: and he that shall marry her that is put away, committeth adultery. 33 Again you have heard that it was said to them of old, thou shalt not forswear thyself: but thou shalt perform thy oaths to the Lord. 34 But I say to you not to swear at all, neither by heaven for it is the throne of God: 35 Nor by the earth, for it is his footstool: nor by Jerusalem, for it is the city of the great king: 36 Neither shalt thou swear by thy head, because thou canst not make one hair white or black. 37 But let your speech be yea, yea: no, no: and that which is over and above these, is of evil. 38 You have heard that it hath been said: An eye for an eye, and a tooth for a tooth. 39 But I say to you not to resist evil: but if one strike thee on thy right cheek, turn to him also the other: 40 And if a man will contend with thee in judgment, and take away thy coat, let go thy cloak also unto him. 41 And whosoever will force thee one mile, go with him other two. 42 Give to him that asketh of thee, and from him that would borrow of thee turn not away. 43 You have heard that it hath been said, Thou shalt love thy neighbour, and hate thy enemy. 44 But I say to you, Love your enemies: do good to them that hate you: and pray for them that persecute and calumniate you: 45 That you may be the children of your Father who is in heaven, who maketh his sun to rise upon the good, and bad, and raineth upon the just and the unjust. 46 For if you love them that love you, what reward shall you have? do not even the publicans this? 47 And if you salute your brethren only, what do you more? do not also the heathens this? 48 Be you therefore perfect, as also your heavenly Father is perfect. 1 Take heed that you do not your justice before men, to be seen by them: otherwise you shall not have

Matthäus 20,17–28,20

17 And Jesus going up to Jerusalem, took the twelve disciples apart and said to them: 18 Behold we go up to Jerusalem, and the Son of man shall be betrayed to the chief priests and the scribes: and they shall condemn him to death. 19 And shall deliver him to the Gentiles to be mocked and scourged and crucified: and the third day he shall rise again. 20 Then came to him the mother of the sons of Zebedee with her sons, adoring and asking something of him. 21 Who said to her: What wilt thou? She saith to him: say that these my two sons may sit, the one on thy right hand, and the other on thy left, in thy kingdom. 22 And Jesus answering, said: You know not what you ask. Can you drink the chalice that I shall drink? They say to him: We can. 23 He saith to them: My chalice indeed you shall drink; but to sit on my right or left hand is not mine to give to you, but to them for whom it is prepared by my Father. 24 And the ten, hearing it, were moved with indignation against the two brethren. 25 But Jesus called them to him and said: You know that the princes of the Gentiles lord it over them; and that they that are the greater, exercise power upon them. 26 It shall not be so among you: but whosoever is the greater among you, let him be your minister. 27 And he that will be first among you shall be your servant. 28 Even as the Son of man is not come to be ministered unto, but to minister and to give his life a redemption for many. 29 And when they went out from Jericho, a great multitude followed him. 30 And behold two blind men sitting by the way side heard that Jesus passed by. And they cried out, saying: O Lord, thou son of David, have mercy on us. 31 And the multitude rebuked them that they should hold their peace. But they cried out the more, saying: O Lord, thou son of David, have mercy on us. 32 And Jesus stood and called them and said: What will ye that I do to you? 33 They say to him: Lord, that our eyes be opened. 34 And Jesus having compassion on them, touched their eyes. And immediately they saw and followed him. 1 And when they drew nigh to Jerusalem and were come to Bethphage, unto mount Olivet, then Jesus sent two disciples, 2 Saying to them: Go ye into the village that is over against you: and immediately you shall find an ass tied and a colt with her. Loose them and bring them to me. 3 And if any man shall say anything to you, say ye that the Lord hath need of them. And forthwith he will let them go. 4 Now all this was done that it might be fulfilled which was spoken by the prophet, saying: 5 Tell ye the daughter of Sion: Behold thy king cometh to thee, meek and sitting upon an ass and a colt, the foal of her that is used to the yoke. 6 And the disciples going, did as Jesus commanded them. 7 And they brought the ass and the colt and laid their garments upon them and made him sit thereon. 8 And a very great multitude spread their garments in the way: and others cut boughs from the trees and strewed them in the way. 9 And the multitudes that went before and that followed cried, saying: Hosanna to the son of David: Blessed is he that cometh in the name of the Lord: Hosanna in the highest. 10 And when he was come into Jerusalem, the whole city was moved, saying: Who is this? 11 And the people said: This is Jesus, the prophet from Nazareth of Galilee. 12 And Jesus went into the temple of God and cast out all them that sold and bought in the temple and overthrew the tables of the money changers and the chairs of them that sold doves. 13 And he saith to them: It is written, My house shall be called the house of prayer; but you have made it a den of thieves. 14 And there came to him the blind and the lame in the temple: and he healed them. 15 And the chief priests and scribes, seeing the wonderful things that he did and the children crying in the temple and saying: Hosanna to the son of David, were moved with indignation, 16 And said to him: Hearest thou what these say? And Jesus said to them: Yea, have you never read: Out of the mouth of infants and of sucklings thou hast perfected praise? 17 And leaving them, he went out of the city into Bethania and remained here. 18 And in the morning, returning into the city, he was hungry. 19 And seeing a certain fig tree by the way side, he came to it and found nothing on it but leaves only. And he saith to it: May no fruit grow on thee henceforward for ever. And immediately the fig tree withered away. 20 And the disciples seeing it wondered, saying: How is it presently withered away? 21 And Jesus answering, said to them: Amen, I say to you, if you shall have faith and stagger not, not only this of the fig tree shall you do, but also if you shall say to this mountain, Take up and cast thyself into the sea, it shall be done. 22 And all things whatsoever you shall ask in prayer believing, you shall receive. 23 And when he was come into the temple, there came to him, as he was teaching, the chief priests and ancients of the people, saying: By what authority dost thou these things? And who hath given thee this authority? 24 Jesus answering, said to them: I also will ask you one word, which if you shall tell me, I will also tell you by what authority I do these things. 25 The baptism of John, whence was it? From heaven or from men? But they thought within themselves, saying: 26 If we shall say, from heaven, he will say to us: Why then did you not believe him? But if we shall say, from men, we are afraid of the multitude: for all held John as a prophet. 27 And answering Jesus, they said: We know not. He also said to them: Neither do I tell you by what authority I do these things. 28 But what think you? A certain man had two sons: and coming to the first, he said: Son, go work to day in my vineyard. 29 And he answering, said: I will not. But afterwards, being moved with repentance, he went. 30 And coming to the other, he said in like manner. And he answering said: I go, Sir. And he went not. 31 Which of the two did the father’s will? They say to him: The first. Jesus saith to them: Amen I say to you that the publicans and the harlots shall go into the kingdom of God before you. 32 For John came to you in the way of justice: and you did not believe him. But the publicans and the harlots believed him: but you, seeing it, did not even afterwards repent, that you might believe him. 33 Hear ye another parable. There was a man, an householder, who planted a vineyard and made a hedge round about it and dug in it a press and built a tower and let it out to husbandmen and went into a strange country. 34 And when the time of the fruits drew nigh, he sent his servants to the husbandmen that they might receive the fruits thereof. 35 And the husbandmen laying hands on his servants, beat one and killed another and stoned another. 36 Again he sent other servants, more than the former; and they did to them in like manner. 37 And last of all he sent to them his son, saying: They will reverence my son. 38 But the husbandmen seeing the son, said among themselves: This is the heir: come, let us kill him, and we shall have his inheritance. 39 And taking him, they cast him forth out of the vineyard and killed him. 40 When therefore the lord of the vineyard shall come, what will he do to those husbandmen? 41 They say to him: He will bring those evil men to an evil end and let out his vineyard to other husbandmen that shall render him the fruit in due season. 42 Jesus saith to them: Have you never read in the Scriptures: The stone which the builders rejected, the same is become the head of the corner? By the Lord this has been done; and it is wonderful in our eyes. 43 Therefore I say to you that the kingdom of God shall be taken from you and shall be given to a nation yielding the fruits thereof. 44 And whosoever shall fall on this stone shall be broken: but on whomsoever it shall fall, it shall grind him to powder. 45 And when the chief priests and Pharisees had heard his parables, they knew that he spoke of them. 46 And seeking to lay hands on him, they feared the multitudes, because they held him as a prophet. 1 And Jesus answering, spoke again in parables to them, saying: 2 The kingdom of heaven is likened to a king who made a marriage for his son. 3 And he sent his servants to call them that were invited to the marriage: and they would not come. 4 Again he sent other servants, saying: Tell them that were invited, Behold, I have prepared my dinner: my beeves and fatlings are killed, and all things are ready. Come ye to the marriage. 5 But they neglected and went their ways, one to his farm and another to his merchandise. 6 And the rest laid hands on his servants and, having treated them contumeliously, put them to death. 7 But when the king had heard of it, he was angry: and sending his armies, he destroyed those murderers and burnt their city. 8 Then he saith to his servants: The marriage indeed is ready; but they that were invited were not worthy. 9 Go ye therefore into the highways; and as many as you shall find, call to the marriage. 10 And his servants going forth into the ways, gathered together all that they found, both bad and good: and the marriage was filled with guests. 11 And the king went in to see the guests: and he saw there a man who had not on a wedding garment. 12 And he saith to him: Friend, how camest thou in hither not having on a wedding garment? But he was silent. 13 Then the king said to the waiters: Bind his hands and feet, and cast him into the exterior darkness. There shall be weeping and gnashing of teeth. 14 For many are called, but few are chosen. 15 Then the Pharisees going, consulted among themselves how to insnare him in his speech. 16 And they sent to him their disciples with the Herodians, saying: Master, we know that thou art a true speaker and teachest the way of God in truth. Neither carest thou for any man: for thou dost not regard the person of men. 17 Tell us therefore what dost thou think? Is it lawful to give tribute to Caesar, or not? 18 But Jesus knowing their wickedness, said: Why do you tempt me, ye hypocrites? 19 Shew me the coin of the tribute. And they offered him a penny. 20 And Jesus saith to them: Whose image and inscription is this? 21 They say to him: Caesar’s. Then he saith to them: Render therefore to Caesar the things that are Caesar’s; and to God, the things that are God’s. 22 And hearing this, they wondered and, leaving him, went their ways. 23 That day there came to him the Sadducees, who say there is no resurrection; and asked him, 24 Saying: Master, Moses said: If a man die having no son, his brother shall marry his wife and raise up issue to his brother. 25 Now there were with us seven brethren: and the first having married a wife, died; and not having issue, left his wife to his brother. 26 In like manner the second and the third and so on, to the seventh. 27 And last of all the woman died also. 28 At the resurrection therefore, whose wife of the seven shall she be? For they all had her. 29 And Jesus answering, said to them: You err, not knowing the Scriptures nor the power of God. 30 For in the resurrection they shall neither marry nor be married, but shall be as the angels of God in heaven. 31 And concerning the resurrection of the dead, have you not read that which was spoken by God, saying to you: 32 I am the God of Abraham and the God of Isaac and the God of Jacob? He is not the God of the dead but of the living. 33 And the multitudes hearing it were in admiration at his doctrine. 34 But the Pharisees, hearing that he had silenced the Sadducees, came together. 35 And one of them, a doctor of the law, asked him, tempting him: 36 Master, which is the great commandment in the law? 37 Jesus said to him: Thou shalt love the Lord thy God with thy whole heart and with thy whole soul and with thy whole mind. 38 This is the greatest and the first commandment. 39 And the second is like to this: Thou shalt love thy neighbour as thyself. 40 On these two commandments dependeth the whole law and the prophets. 41 And the Pharisees being gathered together, Jesus asked them, 42 Saying: What think you of Christ? Whose son is he? They say to him: David’s. 43 He saith to them: How then doth David in spirit call him Lord, saying: 44 The Lord said to my Lord: Sit on my right hand, until I make thy enemies thy footstool? 45 If David then call him Lord, how is he his son? 46 And no man was able to answer him a word: neither durst any man from that day forth ask him any more questions. 1 Then Jesus spoke to the multitudes and to his disciples, 2 Saying: The scribes and the Pharisees have sitten on the chair of Moses. 3 All things therefore whatsoever they shall say to you, observe and do: but according to their works do ye not. For they say, and do not. 4 For they bind heavy and insupportable burdens and lay them on men’s shoulders: but with a finger of their own they will not move them. 5 And all their works they do for to be seen of men. For they make their phylacteries broad and enlarge their fringes. 6 And they love the first places at feasts and the first chairs in the synagogues, 7 And salutations in the market place, and to be called by men, Rabbi. 8 But be not you called Rabbi. For one is your master: and all you are brethren. 9 And call none your father upon earth; for one is your father, who is in heaven. 10 Neither be ye called masters: for one is your master, Christ. 11 He that is the greatest among you shall be your servant. 12 And whosoever shall exalt himself shall be humbled: and he that shall humble himself shall be exalted. 13 But woe to you, scribes and Pharisees, hypocrites, because you shut the kingdom of heaven against men: for you yourselves do not enter in and those that are going in, you suffer not to enter. 14 Woe to you scribes and Pharisees, hypocrites, because you devour the houses of widows, praying long prayers. For this you shall receive the greater judgment. 15 Woe to you, scribes and Pharisees, hypocrites, because you go round about the sea and the land to make one proselyte. And when he is made, you make him the child of hell twofold more than yourselves. 16 Woe to you, blind guides, that say, Whosoever shall swear by the temple, it is nothing; but he that shall swear by the gold of the temple is a debtor. 17 Ye foolish and blind: for whether is greater, the gold or the temple that sanctifieth the gold? 18 And whosoever shall swear by the altar, it is nothing; but whosoever shall swear by the gift that is upon it is a debtor. 19 Ye foolish and blind: for whether is greater, the gift or the altar that sanctifieth the gift? 20 He therefore that sweareth by the altar sweareth by it and by all things that are upon it. 21 And whosoever shall swear by the temple sweareth by it and by him that dwelleth in it. 22 And he that sweareth by heaven sweareth by the throne of God

Markus 1,2–10,22

2 As it is written in Isaias the prophet: Behold I send my angel before thy face, who shall prepare the way before thee. 3 A voice of one crying in the desert: Prepare ye the way of the Lord; make straight his paths. 4 John was in the desert, baptizing and preaching the baptism of penance, unto remission of sins. 5 And there went out to him all the country of Judea and all they of Jerusalem and were baptized by him in the river of Jordan, confessing their sins. 6 And John was clothed camel’s hair, and a leathern girdle about his loins: and he ate locusts and wild honey. 7 And he preached, saying: There cometh after me one mightier than I, the latchet of whose shoes I am not worthy to stoop down and loose. 8 I have baptized you with water: but he shall baptize you with the Holy Ghost. 9 And it came to pass, in those days, Jesus came from Nazareth of Galilee and was baptized by John in Jordan. 10 And forthwith coming up out of the water, he saw the heavens open and the Spirit as a dove descending and remaining on him. 11 And there came a voice from heaven: Thou art my beloved Son; in thee I am well pleased. 12 And immediately the Spirit drove him out into the desert. 13 And he was in the desert forty days and forty nights, and was tempted by Satan. And he was with beasts: and the angels ministered to him. 14 And after that John was delivered up, Jesus came in Galilee, preaching the gospel of the kingdom of God, 15 And saying: The time is accomplished and the kingdom of God is at hand. Repent and believe the gospel: 16 And passing by the sea of Galilee, he saw Simon and Andrew his brother, casting nets into the sea for they were fishermen. 17 And Jesus said to them: Come after me; and I will make you to become fishers of men. 18 And immediately leaving their nets, they followed him. 19 And going on from thence a little farther, he saw James the son of Zebedee and John his brother, who also were mending their nets in the ship: 20 And forthwith he called them. And leaving their father Zebedee in the ship with his hired men, they followed him. 21 And they entered into Capharnaum: and forthwith upon the sabbath days going into the synagogue, he taught them. 22 And they were astonished at his doctrine. For he was teaching them as one having power, and not as the scribes. 23 And there was in their synagogue a man with an unclean spirit; and he cried out, 24 Saying: What have we to do with thee, Jesus of Nazareth? Art thou come to destroy us? I know who thou art, the Holy One of God. 25 And Jesus threatened him, saying: Speak no more, and go out of the man. 26 And the unclean spirit, tearing him and crying out with a loud voice, went out of him. 27 And they were all amazed insomuch that they questioned among themselves, saying: What thing is this? What is this new doctrine? For with power he commandeth even the unclean spirits: and they obey him. 28 And the fame of him was spread forthwith into all the country of Galilee. 29 And immediately going out of the synagogue they came into the house of Simon and Andrew, with James and John. 30 And Simon’s wife’s mother lay in a fit of a fever: and forthwith they tell him of her. 31 And coming to her, he lifted her up, taking her by the hand; and immediately the fever left her, and she ministered unto them. 32 And when it was evening, after sunset, they brought to him all that were ill and that were possessed with devils. 33 And all the city was gathered together at the door. 34 And he healed many that were troubled with divers diseases. And he cast out many devils: and he suffered them not to speak, because they knew him. 35 And rising very early, going out, he went into a desert place: and there he prayed. 36 And Simon and they that were with him followed after him. 37 And when they had found him, they said to him: All seek for thee. 38 And he saith to them: Let us go into the neighbouring towns and cities, that I may preach there also; for to this purpose am I come. 39 And he was preaching in their synagogues and in all Galilee and casting out devils. 40 And there came a leper to him, beseeching him and kneeling down, said to him: If thou wilt thou canst make me clean. 41 And Jesus, having compassion on him, stretched forth his hand and touching him saith to him: I will. Be thou made clean. 42 And when he had spoken, immediately the leprosy departed from him: and he was made clean. 43 And he strictly charged him and forthwith sent him away. 44 And he saith to him: See thou tell no one; but go, shew thyself to the high priest and offer for thy cleansing the things that Moses commanded, for a testimony to them. 45 But he being gone out, began to publish and to blaze abroad the word: so that he could not openly go into the city. but was without in desert places. And they flocked to him from all sides. 1 And again he entered into Capharnaum after some days. 2 And it was heard that he was in the house. And many came together, so that there was no room: no, not even at the door. And he spoke to them the word. 3 And they came to him, bringing one sick of the palsy, who was carried by four. 4 And when they could not offer him unto him for the multitude, they uncovered the roof where he was: and opening it, they let down the bed wherein the man sick of the palsy lay. 5 And when Jesus had seen their faith, he saith to the sick of the palsy: Son, thy sins are forgiven thee. 6 And there were some of the scribes sitting there and thinking in their hearts: 7 Why doth this man speak thus? He blasphemeth. Who can forgive sins, but God only? 8 Which Jesus presently knowing in his spirit that they so thought within themselves, saith to them: Why think you these things in your hearts? 9 Which is easier, to say to the sick of the palsy: Thy sins are forgiven thee; or to say: Arise, take up thy bed and walk? 10 But that you may know that the Son of man hath power on earth to forgive sins (he saith to the sick of the palsy): 11 I say to thee: Arise. Take up thy bed and go into thy house. 12 And immediately he arose and, taking up his bed, went his way in the sight of all: so that all wondered and glorified God, saying: We never saw the like. 13 And he went forth again to the sea side: and all the multitude came to him. And he taught them. 14 And when he was passing by, he saw Levi, the son of Alpheus, sitting at the receipt of custom; and he saith to him: Follow me. And rising up, he followed him. 15 And it came to pass as he sat at meat in his house, many Publicans and sinners sat down together with Jesus and his disciples. For they were many, who also followed him. 16 And the scribes and the Pharisees, seeing that he ate with publicans and sinners, said to his disciples: Why doth your master eat and drink with publicans and sinners? 17 Jesus hearing this, saith to them: They that are well have no need of a physician, but they that are sick. For I came not to call the just, but sinners. 18 And the disciples of John and the Pharisees used to fast. And they come and say to him: Why do the disciples of John and of the Pharisees fast; but thy disciples do not fast? 19 And Jesus saith to them: Can the children of the marriage fast, as long as the bridegroom is with them? As long as they have the bridegroom with them, they cannot fast. 20 But the days will come when the bridegroom shall be taken away from them: and then they shall fast in those days. 21 No man seweth a piece of raw cloth to an old garment: otherwise the new piecing taketh away from the old, and there is made a greater rent. 22 And no man putteth new wine into old bottles: otherwise the wine will burst the bottles, and both the wine will be spilled and the bottles will be lost. But new wine must be put into new bottles. 23 And it came to pass again, as the Lord walked through the corn fields on the sabbath, that his disciples began to go forward and to pluck the ears of corn. 24 And the Pharisees said to him: Behold, why do they on the sabbath day that which is not lawful? 25 And he said to them: Have you never read what David did when he had need and was hungry himself and they that were with him? 26 How he went into the house of God, under Abiathar the high priest, and did eat the loaves of proposition, which was not lawful to eat but for the priests, and gave to them who were with him? 27 And he said to them: The sabbath was made for man, and not man for the sabbath. 28 Therefore the Son of man is Lord of the sabbath also. 1 And he entered again into the synagogue: and there was a man there who had a withered hand. 2 And they watched him whether he would heal on the sabbath days, that they might accuse him. 3 And he said to the man who had the withered hand: Stand up in the midst. 4 And he saith to them: Is it lawful to do good on the sabbath days, or to do evil? To save life, or to destroy? But they held their peace. 5 And looking round about on them with anger, being grieved for the blindness of their hearts, he saith to the man: Stretch forth thy hand. And he stretched it forth: and his hand was restored unto him. 6 And the Pharisees going out, immediately made a consultation with the Herodians against him, how they might destroy him. 7 But Jesus retired with his disciples to the sea; and a great multitude followed him from Galilee and Judea, 8 And from Jerusalem, and from Idumea and from beyond the Jordan. And they about Tyre and Sidon, a great multitude, hearing the things which he did, came to him. 9 And he spoke to his disciples that a small ship should wait on him, because of the multitude, lest they should throng him. 10 For he healed many, so that they pressed upon him for to touch him, as many as had evils. 11 And the unclean spirits, when they saw him, fell down before him: and they cried, saying: 12 Thou art the Son of God. And he strictly charged them that they should not make him known. 13 And going up into a mountain, he called unto him whom he would himself: and they came to him. 14 And he made that twelve should be with him, and that he might send them to preach. 15 And he gave them power to heal sicknesses, and to cast out devils. 16 And to Simon he gave the name Peter: 17 And James the son of Zebedee, and John the brother of James; and he named them Boanerges, which is, The sons of thunder. 18 And Andrew and Philip, and Bartholomew and Matthew, and Thomas and James of Alpheus, and Thaddeus and Simon the Cananean: 19 And Judas Iscariot, who also betrayed him. 20 And they come to a house, and the multitude cometh together again, so that they could not so much as eat bread. 21 And when his friends had heard of it, they went out to lay hold on him. For they said: He is become mad. 22 And the scribes who were come down from Jerusalem, said: He hath Beelzebub, and by the prince of devils he casteth out devils. 23 And after he had called them together, he said to them in parables: How can Satan cast out Satan? 24 And if a kingdom be divided against itself, that kingdom cannot stand. 25 And if a house be divided against itself, that house cannot stand. 26 And if Satan be risen up against himself, he is divided, and cannot stand, but hath an end. 27 No man can enter into the house of a strong man and rob him of his goods, unless he first bind the strong man, and then shall he plunder his house. 28 Amen I say to you that all sins shall be forgiven unto the sons of men, and the blasphemies wherewith they shall blaspheme: 29 But he that shall blaspheme against the Holy Ghost, shall never have forgiveness, but shall be guilty of an everlasting sin. 30 Because they said: He hath an unclean spirit. 31 And his mother and his brethren came; and standing without, sent unto him, calling him. 32 And the multitude sat about him; and they say to him: Behold thy mother and thy brethren without seek for thee. 33 And answering them, he said: Who is my mother and my brethren? 34 And looking round about on them who sat about him, he saith: Behold my mother and my brethren. 35 For whosoever shall do the will of God, he is my brother, and my sister, and mother. 1 And again he began to teach by the sea side; and a great multitude was gathered together unto him, so that he went up into a ship and sat in the sea: and all the multitude was upon the land by the sea side. 2 And he taught them many things in parables, and said unto them in his doctrine: 3 Hear ye: Behold, the sower went out to sow. 4 And whilst he sowed, some fell by the way side, and the birds of the air came and ate it up. 5 And other some fell upon stony ground, where it had not much earth; and it shot up immediately, because it had no depth of earth. 6 And when the sun was risen, it was scorched; and because it had no root, it withered away. 7 And some fell among thorns; and the thorns grew up, and choked it, and it yielded no fruit. 8 And some fell upon good ground; and brought forth fruit that grew up, and increased and yielded, one thirty, another sixty, and another a hundred. 9 And he said: He that hath ears to hear, let him hear. 10 And when he was alone, the twelve that were with him asked him the parable. 11 And he said to them: To you it is given to know the mystery of the kingdom of God: but to them that are without, all things are done in parables: 12 That seeing they may see, and not perceive; and hearing they may hear, and not understand; lest at any time they should be converted, and their sins should be forgiven them. 13 And he saith to them: Are you ignorant of this parable? and how shall you know all parables? 14 He that soweth, soweth the word. 15 And these are they by the way side, where the word is sown, and as soon as they have heard, immediately Satan cometh and taketh away the word that was sown in their hearts. 16 And these likewise are they that are sown on the stony ground: who when they have heard the word, immediately receive it with joy. 17 And they have no root in themselves, but are only for a time: and then when tribulation and persecution ariseth for the word they are presently scandalized. 18 And others there are who are sown among thorns: these are they that hear the word, 19 And the cares of the world, and the deceitfulness of riches, and the lusts after other things entering in choke the word, and it is made fruitless. 20 And these are they who are sown upon the good ground, who hear the word, and receive it, and yield fruit, the one thirty, another sixty, and another a hundred. 21 And he said to them: Doth a candle come in to be put under a bushel, or under a bed? and not to be set on a candlestick? 22 For there is nothing hid, which shall not be made manifest: neither was it made secret, but that it may come abroad. 23 If any man have ears to hear, let him hear. 24 And he said to them: Take heed what you hear. In what measure you shall mete, it shall be measured to you again, and more shall be

Markus 10,32–16,20

32 And they were in the way going up to Jerusalem: and Jesus went before them. And they were astonished and following were afraid. And taking again the twelve, he began to tell them the things that should befall him. 33 Saying: Behold we go up to Jerusalem, and the Son of man shall be betrayed to the chief priests and to the scribes and ancients. And they shall condemn him to death and shall deliver him to the Gentiles. 34 And they shall mock him and spit on him and scourge him and kill him: and the third day he shall rise again. 35 And James and John, the sons of Zebedee, come to him, saying: Master, we desire that whatsoever we shall ask, thou wouldst do it for us. 36 But he said to them: What would you that I should do for you? 37 And they said: Grant to us that we may sit, one on thy right hand and the other on thy left hand, in thy glory. 38 And Jesus said to them: You know not what you ask. Can you drink of the chalice that I drink of or be baptized with the baptism wherewith I am baptized? 39 But they said to him: We can. And Jesus saith to them: You shall indeed drink of the chalice that I drink of; and with the baptism wherewith I am baptized you shall be baptized. 40 But to sit on my right hand or on my left is not mine to give to you, but to them for whom it is prepared. 41 And the ten, hearing it, began to be much displeased at James and John. 42 But Jesus calling them, saith to them: You know that they who seem to rule over the Gentiles lord it over them: and their princes have power over them. 43 But it is not so among you: but whosoever will be greater shall be your minister. 44 And whosoever will be first among you shall be the servant of all. 45 For the Son of man also is not come to be ministered unto: but to minister and to give his life a redemption for many. 46 And they came to Jericho. And as he went out of Jericho with his disciples and a very great multitude, Bartimeus the blind man, the son of Timeus, sat by the way side begging. 47 Who when he had heard that it was Jesus of Nazareth, began to cry out and to say: Jesus, Son of David, have mercy on me. 48 And many rebuked him, that he might hold his peace; but he cried a great deal the more: Son of David, have mercy on me. 49 And Jesus, standing still, commanded him to be called. And they call the blind man, saying to him: Be of better comfort. Arise, he calleth thee. 50 Who casting off his garment leaped up and came to him. 51 And Jesus answering, said to him: What wilt thou that I should do to thee? And the blind man said to him: Rabboni. That I may see. 52 And Jesus saith to him: Go thy way. Thy faith hath made thee whole. And immediately he saw and followed him in the way. 1 And when they were drawing near to Jerusalem and to Bethania, at the mount of Olives, he sendeth two of his disciples, 2 And saith to them: Go into the village that is over against you, and immediately at your coming in thither, you shall find a colt tied, upon which no man yet hath sat. Loose him and bring him. 3 And if any man shall say to you: What are you doing? Say ye that the Lord hath need of him. And immediately he will let him come hither. 4 And going their way, they found the colt tied before the gate without, in the meeting of two ways. And they loose him. 5 And some of them that stood there said to them: What do you loosing the colt? 6 Who said to them as Jesus had commanded them. And they let him go with them. 7 And they brought the colt to Jesus. And they lay their garments on him: and he sat upon him. 8 And many spread their garments in the way: and others cut down boughs from the trees and strewed them in the way. 9 And they that went before and they that followed cried, saying: Hosanna: Blessed is he that cometh in the name of the Lord. 10 Blessed be the kingdom of our father David that cometh: Hosanna in the highest. 11 And he entered into Jerusalem, into the temple: and having viewed all things round about, when now the eventide was come, he went out to Bethania with the twelve. 12 And the next day when they came out from Bethania, he was hungry. 13 And when he had seen afar off a fig tree having leaves, he came, if perhaps he might find any thing on it. And when he was come to it, he found nothing but leaves. For it was not the time for figs. 14 And answering he said to it: May no man hereafter eat fruit of thee any more for ever! And his disciples heard it. 15 And they came to Jerusalem. And when he was entered into the temple, he began to cast out them that sold and bought in the temple: and over threw the tables of the moneychangers and the chairs of them that sold doves. 16 And he suffered not that any man should carry a vessel through the temple. 17 And he taught, saying to them: Is it not written: My house shall be called the house of prayer to all nations, but you have made it a den of thieves. 18 Which when the chief priests and the scribes had heard, they sought how they might destroy him. For they feared him, because the whole multitude was in admiration at his doctrine. 19 And when evening was come, he went forth out of the city. 20 And when they passed by in the morning they saw the fig tree dried up from the roots. 21 And Peter remembering, said to him: Rabbi, behold the fig tree which thou didst curse is withered away. 22 And Jesus answering, saith to them: Have the faith of God. 23 Amen I say to you that whosoever shall say to this mountain, Be thou removed and be cast into the sea, and shall not stagger in his heart, but believe that whatsoever he saith shall be done; it shall be done unto him. 24 Therefore I say unto you, all things, whatsoever you ask when ye pray, believe that you shall receive: and they shall come unto you. 25 And when you shall stand to pray, forgive, if you have aught against any man: that your Father also, who is in heaven, may forgive you your sins. 26 But if you will not forgive, neither will your father that is in heaven forgive you your sins. 27 And they come again to Jerusalem. And when he was walking in the temple, there come to him the chief priests and the scribes and the ancients. 28 And they say to him: By what authority dost thou these things? And who hath given thee this authority that thou shouldst do these things? 29 And Jesus answering, said to them: I will also ask you one word. And answer you me: and I will tell you by what authority I do these things. 30 The baptism of John, was it from heaven or from men? Answer me. 31 But they thought with themselves, saying: If we say, From heaven; he will say, Why then did you not believe him? 32 If we say, From men, we fear the people. For all men counted John that he was a prophet indeed. 33 And they answering, say to Jesus: We know not. And Jesus answering, saith to them: Neither do I tell you by what authority I do these things. 1 And he began to speak to them in parables: A certain man planted a vineyard and made a hedge about it and dug a place for the winefat and built a tower and let it to husbandmen: and went into a far country. 2 And at the season he sent to the husbandmen a servant to receive of the husbandmen of the fruit of the vineyard. 3 Who, having laid hands on him, beat and sent him away empty. 4 And again he sent to them another servant: and him they wounded in the head and used him reproachfully. 5 And again he sent another, and him they killed: and many others, of whom some they beat, and others they killed. 6 Therefore, having yet one son, most dear to him, he also sent him unto them last of all, saying: They will reverence my son. 7 But the husbandmen said one to another: This is the heir. Come let us kill him and the inheritance shall be ours. 8 And laying hold on him, they killed him and cast him out of the vineyard. 9 What therefore will the lord of the vineyard do? He will come and destroy those husbandmen and will give the vineyard to others. 10 And have you not read this scripture, The stone which the builders rejected, the same is made the head of the corner: 11 By the Lord has this been done, and it is wonderful in our eyes. 12 And they sought to lay hands on him: but they feared the people. For they knew that he spoke this parable to them. And leaving him, they went their way. 13 And they sent to him some of the Pharisees and of the Herodians: that they should catch him in his words. 14 Who coming, say to him: Master, we know that thou art a true speaker and carest not for any man; for thou regardest not the person of men, but teachest the way of God in truth. Is it lawful to give tribute to Caesar? Or shall we not give it? 15 Who knowing their wiliness, saith to them: Why tempt you me? Bring me a penny that I may see it. 16 And they brought it him. And he saith to them: Whose is this image and inscription? They say to him, Caesar’s. 17 And Jesus answering, said to them: Render therefore to Caesar the things that are Caesar’s and to God the things that are God’s. And they marvelled at him. 18 And there came to him the Sadducees, who say there is no resurrection. And they asked him, saying: 19 Master, Moses wrote unto us that if any man’s brother die and leave his wife behind him and leave no children, his brother should take his wife and raise up seed to his brother. 20 Now there were seven brethren: and the first took a wife and died leaving no issue. 21 And the second took her and died: and neither did he leave any issue. And the third in like manner. 22 And the seven all took her in like manner and did not leave issue. Last of all the woman also died. 23 In the resurrection therefore, when they shall rise again, whose wife shall she be of them? For the seven had her to wife. 24 And Jesus answering, saith to them: Do ye not therefore err, because you know not the scriptures nor the power of God? 25 For when they shall rise again from the dead, they shall neither marry, nor be married, but are as the angels in heaven. 26 And as concerning the dead that they rise again have you not read in the book of Moses, how in the bush God spoke to him, saying: I am the God of Abraham and the God of Isaac and the God of Jacob? 27 He is not the God of the dead, but of the living. You therefore do greatly err. 28 And there came one of the scribes that had heard them reasoning together, and seeing that he had answered them well, asked him which was the first commandment of all. 29 And Jesus answered him: The first commandment of all is, Hear, O Israel: the Lord thy God is one God. 30 And thou shalt love the Lord thy God with thy whole heart and with thy whole soul and with thy whole mind and with thy whole strength. This is the first commandment. 31 And the second is like to it: Thou shalt love thy neighbour as thyself. There is no other commandment greater than these. 32 And the scribe said to him: Well, Master, thou hast said in truth that there is one God and there is no other besides him. 33 And that he should be loved with the whole heart and with the whole understanding and with the whole soul and with the whole strength. And to love one’s neighbour as one’s self is a greater thing than all holocausts and sacrifices. 34 And Jesus seeing that he had answered wisely, said to him: Thou art not far from the kingdom of God. And no man after that durst ask him any question. 35 And Jesus answering, said, teaching in the temple: How do the scribes say that Christ is the son of David? 36 For David himself saith by the Holy Ghost: The Lord said to my Lord: Sit on my right hand, until I make thy enemies thy footstool. 37 David therefore himself calleth him Lord. And whence is he then his son? And a great multitude heard him gladly. 38 And he said to them in his doctrine: Beware of the scribes, who love to walk in long robes and to be saluted in the marketplace, 39 And to sit in the first chairs in the synagogues and to have the highest places at suppers: 40 Who devour the houses of widows under the pretence of long prayer. These shall receive greater judgment. 41 And Jesus sitting over against the treasury, beheld how the people cast money into the treasury. And many that were rich cast in much. 42 And there came a certain poor widow: and she cast in two mites, which make a farthing. 43 And calling his disciples together, he saith to them: Amen I say to you, this poor widow hath cast in more than all they who have cast into the treasury. 44 For all they did cast in of their abundance; but she of her want cast in all she had, even her whole living. 1 And as he was going out of the temple, one of his disciples said to him: Master, behold what manner of stones and what buildings are here. 2 And Jesus answering, said to him: Seest thou all these great buildings? There shall not be left a stone upon a stone, that shall not be thrown down. 3 And as he sat on the mount of Olivet over against the temple, Peter and James and John and Andrew asked him apart: 4 Tell us, when shall these things be and what shall be the sign when all these things shall begin to be fulfilled? 5 And Jesus answering, began to say to them: Take heed lest any man deceive you. 6 For many shall come in my name saying, I am he: and they shall deceive many. 7 And when you shall hear of wars and rumours of wars, fear ye not. For such things must needs be: but the end is not yet. 8 For nation shall rise against nation and kingdom against kingdom: and there shall be earthquakes in divers places and famines. These things are the beginning of sorrows. 9 But look to yourselves. For they shall deliver you Up to councils: and in the synagogues you shall be beaten: and you shall stand before governors and kings for my sake, for a testimony unto them. 10 And unto all nations the gospel must first be preached. 11 And when they shall lead you and deliver you up, be not thoughtful beforehand what you shall speak: but whatsoever shall be given you in that hour, that speak ye. For it is not you that speak, but the Holy Ghost. 12 And the brother shall betray his brother unto death, and the father his son; and children shall rise up against their parents and shall work their death. 13 And you shall be hated by all men for my name’s sake. But he that shall endure unto the end, he shall be saved. 14 And when you shall see the abomination of desolation, standing where it ought not (he that readeth let him understand): then let them that are in Judea flee unto the mountains. 15 And let him that is on the housetop not go down into the house nor enter therein to take any thing out of the house. 16 And let him that shall be in the field not turn back to take up his garment. 17 And woe to them that are with child and that give suck in those days. 18 But pray ye that these things happen not in winter. 19 For in those days shall be such tribulations as were not from the beginning of the creation which God created until now: neither shall be. 20 And unless the Lord

Lukas 1,8–3,22

8 And it came to pass, when he executed the priestly function in the order of his course before God, 9 According to the custom of the priestly office, it was his lot to offer incense, going into the temple of the Lord. 10 And all the multitude of the people was praying without, at the hour of incense. 11 And there appeared to him an angel of the Lord, standing on the right side of the altar of incense. 12 And Zachary seeing him, was troubled: and fear fell upon him. 13 But the angel said to him: Fear not, Zachary, for thy prayer is heard: and thy wife Elizabeth shall bear thee a son. And thou shalt call his name John. 14 And thou shalt have joy and gladness: and many shall rejoice in his nativity. 15 For he shall be great before the Lord and shall drink no wine nor strong drink: and he shall be filled with the Holy Ghost, even from his mother’s womb. 16 And he shall convert many of the children of Israel to the Lord their God. 17 And he shall go before him in the spirit and power of Elias: that he may turn the hearts of the fathers unto the children and the incredulous to the wisdom of the just, to prepare unto the Lord a perfect people. 18 And Zachary said to the angel: Whereby shall I know this? For I am an old man, and my wife is advanced in years. 19 And the angel answering, said to him: I am Gabriel, who stand before God and am sent to speak to thee and to bring thee these good tidings. 20 And behold, thou shalt be dumb and shalt not be able to speak until the day wherein these things shall come to pass: because thou hast not believed my words, which shall be fulfilled in their time. 21 And the people were waiting for Zachary: and they wondered that he tarried so long in the temple. 22 And when he came out, he could not speak to them: and they understood that he had seen a vision in the temple. And he made signs to them and remained dumb. 23 And it came to pass, after the days of his office were accomplished, he departed to his own house. 24 And after those days, Elizabeth his wife conceived and hid herself five months, saying: 25 Thus hath the Lord dealt with me in the days wherein he hath had regard to take away my reproach among men. 26 And in the sixth month, the angel Gabriel was sent from God into a city of Galilee, called Nazareth, 27 To a virgin espoused to a man whose name was Joseph, of the house of David: and the virgin’s name was Mary. 28 And the angel being come in, said unto her: Hail, full of grace, the Lord is with thee: blessed art thou among women. 29 Who having heard, was troubled at his saying and thought with herself what manner of salutation this should be. 30 And the angel said to her: Fear not, Mary, for thou hast found grace with God. 31 Behold thou shalt conceive in thy womb and shalt bring forth a son: and thou shalt call his name Jesus. 32 He shall be great and shall be called the Son of the Most High. And the Lord God shall give unto him the throne of David his father: and he shall reign in the house of Jacob for ever. 33 And of his kingdom there shall be no end. 34 And Mary said to the angel: How shall this be done, because I know not man? 35 And the angel answering, said to her: The Holy Ghost shall come upon thee and the power of the Most High shall overshadow thee. And therefore also the Holy which shall be born of thee shall be called the Son of God. 36 And behold thy cousin Elizabeth, she also hath conceived a son in her old age: and this is the sixth month with her that is called barren. 37 Because no word shall be impossible with God. 38 And Mary said: Behold the handmaid of the Lord: be it done to me according to thy word. And the angel departed from her. 39 And Mary rising up in those days, went into the hill country with haste into a city of Juda. 40 And she entered into the house of Zachary and saluted Elizabeth. 41 And it came to pass that when Elizabeth heard the salutation of Mary, the infant leaped in her womb. And Elizabeth was filled with the Holy Ghost. 42 And she cried out with a loud voice and said: Blessed art thou among women and blessed is the fruit of thy womb. 43 And whence is this to me that the mother of my Lord should come to me? 44 For behold as soon as the voice of thy salutation sounded in my ears, the infant in my womb leaped for joy. 45 And blessed art thou that hast believed, because those things shall be accomplished that were spoken to thee by the Lord. 46 And Mary said: My soul doth magnify the Lord. 47 And my spirit hath rejoiced in God my Saviour. 48 Because he hath regarded the humility of his handmaid: for behold from henceforth all generations shall call me blessed. 49 Because he that is mighty hath done great things to me: and holy is his name. 50 And his mercy is from generation unto generations, to them that fear him. 51 He hath shewed might in his arm: he hath scattered the proud in the conceit of their heart. 52 He hath put down the mighty from their seat and hath exalted the humble. 53 He hath filled the hungry with good things: and the rich he hath sent empty away. 54 He hath received Israel his servant, being mindful of his mercy. 55 As he spoke to our fathers: to Abraham and to his seed for ever. 56 And Mary abode with her about three months. And she returned to her own house. 57 Now Elizabeth’s full time of being delivered was come: and she brought forth a son. 58 And her neighbors and kinsfolks heard that the Lord had shewed his great mercy towards her: and they congratulated with her. 59 And it came to pass that on the eighth day they came to circumcise the child: and they called him by his father’s name Zachary. 60 And his mother answering, said: Not so. But he shall be called John. 61 And they said to her: There is none of thy kindred that is called by this name. 62 And they made signs to his father, how he would have him called. 63 And demanding a writing table, he wrote, saying: John is his name. And they all wondered. 64 And immediately his mouth was opened and his tongue loosed: and he spoke, blessing God. 65 And fear came upon all their neighbours: and all these things were noised abroad over all the hill country of Judea. 66 And all they that had heard them laid them up in their heart, saying: What an one, think ye, shall this child be? For the hand of the Lord was with him. 67 And Zachary his father was filled with the Holy Ghost. And he prophesied, saying: 68 Blessed be the Lord God of Israel: because he hath visited and wrought the redemption of his people. 69 And hath raised up an horn of salvation to us, in the house of David his servant. 70 As he spoke by the mouth of his holy prophets, who are from the beginning. 71 Salvation from our enemies and from the hand of all that hate us. 72 To perform mercy to our fathers and to remember his holy testament. 73 The oath, which he swore to Abraham our father, that he would grant to us. 74 That being delivered from the hand of our enemies, we may serve him without fear: 75 In holiness and justice before him, all our days. 76 And thou, child, shalt be called the prophet of the Highest: for thou shalt go before the face of the Lord to prepare his ways: 77 To give knowledge of salvation to his people, unto the remission of their sins. 78 Through the bowels of the mercy of our God, in which the Orient from on high hath visited us: 79 To enlighten them that sit in darkness and in the shadow of death: to direct our feet into the way of peace. 80 And the child grew and was strengthened in spirit: and was in the deserts until the day of his manifestation to Israel. 1 And it came to pass that in those days there went out a decree from Caesar Augustus that the whole world should be enrolled. 2 This enrolling was first made by Cyrinus, the governor of Syria. 3 And all went to be enrolled, every one into his own city. 4 And Joseph also went up from Galilee, out of the city of Nazareth, into Judea, to the city of David, which is called Bethlehem: because he was of the house and family of David. 5 To be enrolled with Mary his espoused wife, who was with child. 6 And it came to pass that when they were there, her days were accomplished that she should be delivered. 7 And she brought forth her first born son and wrapped him up in swaddling clothes and laid him in a manger: because there was no room for them in the inn. 8 And there were in the same country shepherds watching and keeping the night watches over their flock. 9 And behold an angel of the Lord stood by them and the brightness of God shone round about them: and they feared with a great fear. 10 And the angel said to them: Fear not; for, behold, I bring you good tidings of great joy that shall be to all the people: 11 For, this day is born to you a Saviour, who is Christ the Lord, in the city of David. 12 And this shall be a sign unto you. You shall find the infant wrapped in swaddling clothes and laid in a manger. 13 And suddenly there was with the angel a multitude of the heavenly army, praising God and saying: 14 Glory to God in the highest: and on earth peace to men of good will. 15 And it came to pass, after the angels departed from them into heaven, the shepherds said one to another: Let us go over to Bethlehem and let us see this word that is come to pass, which the Lord hath shewed to us. 16 And they came with haste: and they found Mary and Joseph, and the infant lying in the manger. 17 And seeing, they understood of the word that had been spoken to them concerning this child. 18 And all that heard wondered: and at those things that were told them by the shepherds. 19 But Mary kept all these words, pondering them in her heart. 20 And the shepherds returned, glorifying and praising God for all the things they had heard and seen, as it was told unto them. 21 And after eight days were accomplished, that the child should be circumcised, his name was called JESUS, which was called by the angel before he was conceived in the womb. 22 And after the days of her purification, according to the law of Moses, were accomplished, they carried him to Jerusalem, to present him to the Lord: 23 As it is written in the law of the Lord: Every male opening the womb shall be called holy to the Lord: 24 And to offer a sacrifice, according as it is written in the law of the Lord, a pair of turtledoves or two young pigeons: 25 And behold there was a man in Jerusalem named Simeon: and this man was just and devout, waiting for the consolation of Israel. And the Holy Ghost was in him. 26 And he had received an answer from the Holy Ghost, that he should not see death before he had seen the Christ of the Lord. 27 And he came by the Spirit into the temple. And when his parents brought in the child Jesus, to do for him according to the custom of the law, 28 He also took him into his arms and blessed God and said 29 Now thou dost dismiss thy servant, O Lord, according to thy word in peace: 30 Because my eyes have seen thy salvation, 31 Which thou hast prepared before the face of all peoples: 32 A light to the revelation of the Gentiles and the glory of thy people Israel. 33 And his father and mother were wondering at those things which were spoken concerning him. 34 And Simeon blessed them and said to Mary his mother: Behold this child is set for the fall and for the resurrection of many in Israel and for a sign which shall be contradicted. 35 And thy own soul a sword shall pierce, that, out of many hearts thoughts may be revealed. 36 And there was one Anna, a prophetess, the daughter of Phanuel, of the tribe of Aser. She was far advanced in years and had lived with her husband seven years from her virginity. 37 And she was a widow until fourscore and four years: who departed not from the temple, by fastings and prayers serving night and day. 38 Now she, at the same hour, coming in, confessed to the Lord: and spoke of him to all that looked for the redemption of Israel. 39 And after they had performed all things according to the law of the Lord, they returned into Galilee, to their city Nazareth. 40 And the child grew and waxed strong, full of wisdom: and the grace of God was in him. 41 And his parents went every year to Jerusalem, at the solemn day of the pasch. 42 And when he was twelve years old, they going up into Jerusalem, according to the custom of the feast, 43 And having fulfilled the days, when they returned, the child Jesus remained in Jerusalem. And his parents knew it not. 44 And thinking that he was in the company, they came a day’s journey and sought him among their kinsfolks and acquaintance. 45 And not finding him, they returned into Jerusalem, seeking him. 46 And it came to pass, that, after three days, they found him in the temple, sitting in the midst of the doctors, hearing them and asking them questions. 47 And all that heard him were astonished at his wisdom and his answers. 48 And seeing him, they wondered. And his mother said to him: Son, why hast thou done so to us? Behold thy father and I have sought thee sorrowing. 49 And he said to them: How is it that you sought me? Did you not know that I must be about my father’s business? 50 And they understood not the word that he spoke unto them. 51 And he went down with them and came to Nazareth and was subject to them. And his mother kept all these words in her heart. 52 And Jesus advanced in wisdom and age and grace with God and men. 1 Now in the fifteenth year of the reign of Tiberius Caesar, Pontius Pilate being governor of Judea, and Herod being tetrarch of Galilee, and Philip his brother tetrarch of Iturea and the country of Trachonitis, and Lysanias tetrarch of Abilina: 2 Under the high priests Anna and Caiphas: the word of the Lord was made unto John, the son of Zachary, in the desert. 3 And he came into all the country about the Jordan, preaching the baptism of penance for the remission of sins. 4 As it was written in the book of the sayings of Isaias the prophet: A voice of one crying in the wilderness: Prepare ye the way of the Lord, make straight his paths. 5 Every valley shall be filled and every mountain and hill shall be brought low: and the crooked shall be made straight, and the rough ways plain. 6 And all flesh shall see the salvation of God. 7 He said therefore to the multitudes that went forth to be baptized by him: Ye offspring of vipers, who hath shewed you to flee from the wrath to come? 8 Bring forth therefore fruits worthy of penance: and do not begin to say, We have Abraham for our father. For I say unto you that God is able of these stones, to raise up children to Abraham. 9 For now the axe is laid to the root of the trees. Every tree therefore that bringeth not forth good fruit shall be cut down and cast into the fire. 10 And the people asked him, saying: What then shall we do? 11 And he answering, said to them: He that hath two coats, let him give to him that hath none; and he that hath meat, let him do in

Lukas 4,1–9,50

1 And Jesus being full of the Holy Ghost, returned from the Jordan and was led the by the spirit into the desert, 2 For the space of forty days, and was tempted by the devil. And he ate nothing in those days. And when they were ended, he was hungry. 3 And the devil said to him: If thou be the Son of God, say to this stone that it be made bread. 4 And Jesus answered him: is written that Man liveth not by bread alone, but by every word of God. 5 And the devil led him into a high mountain and shewed him all the kingdoms of the world in a moment of time. 6 And he said to him: To thee will I give all this power and the glory of them. For to me they are delivered: and to whom I will, I give them. 7 If thou therefore wilt adore before me, all shall be thine. 8 And Jesus answering said to him. It is written: Thou shalt adore the Lord thy God, and him only shalt thou serve. 9 And he brought him to Jerusalem and set him on a pinnacle of the temple and said to him: If thou be the Son of God, cast thyself from hence. 10 For it is written that He hath given his angels charge over thee that they keep thee. 11 And that in their hands they shall bear thee up, lest perhaps thou dash thy foot against a stone. 12 And Jesus answering, said to him: It is said: Thou shalt not tempt the Lord thy God. 13 And all the temptation being ended, the devil departed from him for a time. 14 And Jesus returned in the power of the spirit, into Galilee: and the fame of him went out through the whole country. 15 And he taught in their synagogues and was magnified by all. 16 And he came to Nazareth, where he was brought up: and he went into the synagogue, according to his custom, on the sabbath day: and he rose up to read. 17 And the book of Isaias the prophet was delivered unto him. And as he unfolded the book, he found the place where it was written: 18 The spirit of the Lord is upon me. Wherefore he hath anointed me to preach the gospel to the poor, he hath sent me to heal the contrite of heart, 19 To preach deliverance to the captives and sight to the blind, to set at liberty them that are bruised, to preach the acceptable year of the Lord and the day of reward. 20 And when he had folded the book, he restored it to the minister and sat down. And the eyes of all in the synagogue were fixed on him. 21 And he began to say to them: This day is fulfilled this scripture in your ears. 22 And all gave testimony to him. And they wondered at the words of grace that proceeded from his mouth. And they said: Is not this the son of Joseph? 23 And he said to them: Doubtless you will say to me this similitude: Physician, heal thyself. As great things as we have heard done in Capharnaum, do also here in thy own country. 24 And he said: Amen I say to you that no prophet is accepted in his own country. 25 In truth I say to You, there were many widows in the days of Elias in Israel, when heaven was shut up three years and six months, when there was a great famine throughout all the earth. 26 And to none of them was Elias sent, but to Sarepta of Sidon, to a widow woman. 27 And there were many lepers in Israel in the time of Eliseus the prophet: and none of them was cleansed but Naaman the Syrian. 28 And all they in the synagogue, hearing these things, were filled with anger. 29 And they rose up and thrust him out of the city: and they brought him to the brow of the hill whereon their city was built, that they might cast him down headlong. 30 But he passing through the midst of them, went his way. 31 And he went down into Capharnaum, a city of Galilee: and there he taught them on the sabbath days. 32 And they were astonished at his doctrine: for his speech was with power. 33 And in the synagogue there was a man who had an unclean devil: and he cried out with a loud voice, 34 Saying: Let us alone. What have we to do with thee, Jesus of Nazareth? Art thou come to destroy us? I know thee who thou art, the holy one of God. 35 And Jesus rebuked him, saying: Hold thy peace and go out of him. And when the devil had thrown him into the midst, he went out of him and hurt him not at all. 36 And there came fear upon all; and they talked among themselves, saying: What word is this, for with authority and power he commandeth the unclean spirits, and they go out? 37 And the fame of him was published into every place of the country. 38 And Jesus rising up out of the synagogue, went into Simon’s house. And Simon’s wife’s mother was taken with a great fever: and they besought him for her. 39 And standing over her, he commanded the fever: and it left her. And immediately rising, she ministered to them. 40 And when the sun was down, all they that had any sick with divers diseases brought them to him. But he, laying his hands on every one of them, healed them. 41 And devils went out from many, crying out and saying: Thou art the son of God. And rebuking them he suffered them not to speak; for they knew that he was Christ. 42 And when it was day, going out he went into a desert place: and the multitudes sought him, and came unto him. And they stayed him that should not depart from them. 43 To whom he said: To other cities also I must preach the kingdom of God: for therefore am I sent. 44 And he was preaching in the synagogues of Galilee. 1 And it came to pass, that when the multitudes pressed upon him to hear the word of God, he stood by the lake of Genesareth, 2 And saw two ships standing by the lake: but the fishermen were gone out of them and were washing their nets. 3 And going into one of the ships that was Simon’s, he desired him to draw back a little from the land. And sitting, he taught the multitudes out of the ship. 4 Now when he had ceased to speak, he said to Simon: Launch out into the deep and let down your nets for a draught. 5 And Simon answering said to him: Master, we have laboured all the night and have taken nothing: but at thy word I will let down the net. 6 And when they had done this, they enclosed a very great multitude of fishes: and their net broke. 7 And they beckoned to their partners that were in the other ship, that they should come and help them. And they came and filled both the ships, so that they were almost sinking. 8 Which when Simon Peter saw, he fell down at Jesus’ knees, saying: Depart from me, for I am a sinful man, O Lord. 9 For he was wholly astonished, and all that were with him, at the draught of the fishes which they had taken. 10 And so were also James and John, the sons of Zebedee, who were Simon’s partners. And Jesus saith to Simon: Fear not: from henceforth thou shalt catch men. 11 And having brought their ships to land, leaving all things, they followed him. 12 And it came to pass, when he was in a certain city, behold a man full of leprosy who, seeing Jesus and falling on his face, besought him saying: Lord, if thou wilt, thou canst make me clean. 13 And stretching forth his hand, he touched him, saying: I will. Be thou cleansed. And immediately the leprosy departed from him. 14 And he charged him that he should tell no man, but: Go, shew thyself to the priest and offer for thy cleansing according as Moses commanded, for a testimony to them. 15 But the fame of him went abroad the more: and great multitudes came together to hear and to be healed by him of their infirmities. 16 And he retired into the desert; and prayed. 17 And it came to pass on a certain day, as he sat teaching, that there were also Pharisees and doctors of the law sitting by, that were come out of every town of Galilee and Judea and Jerusalem: and the power of the Lord was to heal them. 18 And behold, men brought in a bed a man who had the palsy: and they sought means to bring him in and to lay him before him. 19 And when they could not find by what way they might bring him in, because of the multitude, they went up upon the roof and let him down through the tiles with his bed into the midst before Jesus. 20 Whose faith when he saw, he said: Man, thy sins are forgiven thee. 21 And the scribes and Pharisees began to think, saying: Who is this who speaketh blasphemies? Who can forgive sins, but God alone? 22 And when Jesus knew their thoughts, answering he said to them: What is it you think in your hearts? 23 Which is easier to say: Thy sins are forgiven thee; or to say: Arise and walk? 24 But that you may know that the Son of man hath the power on earth to forgive sins (he saith to the sick of the palsy), I say to thee to: Arise, take up thy bed and go into thy house. 25 And immediately rising up before them, he took up the bed on which he lay: and he went away to his own house, glorifying God. 26 And all were astonished: and they glorified God. And they were filled with fear, saying: We have seen wonderful things to-day. 27 And after these things, he went forth and saw a publican named Levi, sitting at the receipt of custom: and he said to him: Follow me. 28 And leaving all things, he rose up and followed him. 29 And Levi made him a great feast in his own house: And there was a great company of publicans and of others that were at table with them. 30 But the Pharisees and scribes murmured, saying to his disciples: Why do you eat and drink with publicans and sinners? 31 And Jesus answering, said to them: They that are whole need not the physician: but they that are sick. 32 I came not to call the just, but sinners to penance. 33 And they said to him: Why do the disciples of John fast often and make prayers, and the disciples of the Pharisees in like manner; but thine eat and drink? 34 To whom he said: Can you make the children of the bridegroom fast whilst the bridegroom is with them? 35 But the days will come when the bridegroom shall be taken away from them: then shall they fast in those days. 36 And he spoke also a similitude to them: That no man putteth a piece from a new garment upon an old garment: otherwise he both rendeth the new, and the piece taken from the new agreeth not with the old. 37 And no man putteth new wine into old bottles: otherwise the new wine will break the bottles; and it will be spilled and the bottles will be lost. 38 But new wine must be put into new bottles: and both are preserved. 39 And no man drinking old hath presently a mind to new: for he saith: The old is better. 1 And it came to pass on the second first sabbath that, as he went through the corn fields, his disciples plucked the ears and did eat, rubbing them in their hands. 2 And some of the Pharisees said to them: Why do you that which is not lawful on the sabbath days? 3 And Jesus answering them, said: Have you not read so much as this, what David did, when himself was hungry and they that were with him: 4 How he went into the house of God and took and ate the bread of proposition and gave to them that were with him, which is not lawful to eat but only for the priests? 5 And he said to them: The Son of man is Lord also of the sabbath. 6 And it came to pass also, on another sabbath, that he entered into the synagogue and taught. And there was a man whose right hand was withered. 7 And the scribes and Pharisees watched if he would heal on the sabbath: that they might find an accusation against him. 8 But he knew their thoughts and said to the man who had the withered hand: Arise and stand forth in the midst. And rising he stood forth. 9 Then Jesus said to them: I ask you, if it be lawful on the sabbath days to do good or to do evil? To save life or to destroy? 10 And looking round about on them all, he said to the man: Stretch forth thy hand. And he stretched it forth. And his hand was restored. 11 And they were filled with madness: and they talked one with another, what they might do to Jesus. 12 And it came to pass in those days, that he went out into a mountain to pray: and he passed the whole night in the prayer of God. 13 And when day was come, he called unto him his disciples: and he chose twelve of them (whom also he named apostles): 14 Simon, whom he surnamed Peter, and Andrew his brother, James and John, Philip and Bartholomew, 15 Matthew and Thomas, James the son of Alpheus, and Simon who is called Zelotes, 16 And Jude the brother of James, and Judas Iscariot, who was the traitor. 17 And coming down with them, he stood in a plain place: and the company of his disciples and a very great multitude of people from all Judea and Jerusalem and the sea coast, both of Tyre and Sidon, 18 Who were come to hear him and to be healed of their diseases. And they that were troubled with unclean spirits were cured. 19 And all the multitude sought to touch him: for virtue went out from him and healed all. 20 And he, lifting up his eyes on his disciples, said: Blessed are ye poor: for yours is the kingdom of God. 21 Blessed are ye that hunger now: for you shall be filled. Blessed are ye that weep now: for you shall laugh. 22 Blessed shall you be when men shall hate you, and when they shall separate you and shall reproach you and cast out your name as evil, for the Son of man’s sake. 23 Be glad in that day and rejoice: for behold, your reward is great in heaven, For according to these things did their fathers to the prophets. 24 But woe to you that are rich: for you have your consolation. 25 Woe to you that are filled: for you shall hunger. Woe to you that now laugh: for you shall mourn and weep. 26 Woe to you when men shall bless you: for according to these things did their fathers to the false prophets. 27 But I say to you that hear: Love your enemies. Do good to them that hate you. 28 Bless them that curse you and pray for them that calumniate you. 29 And to him that striketh thee on the one cheek, offer also the other. And him that taketh away from thee thy cloak, forbid not to take thy coat also. 30 Give to every one that asketh thee: and of him that taketh away thy goods, ask them not again. 31 And as you would that men should do to you, do you also to them in like manner. 32 And if you love them that love you, what thanks are to you? For sinners also love those that love them. 33 And if you do good to them who do good to you, what thanks are to you? For sinners also do this. 34 And if you lend to them of whom you hope to receive, what thanks are to you? For sinners also lend to sinners, for to receive as much. 35 But love ye your enemies: do good, and lend, hoping for nothing thereby: and your reward shall be great, and you shall be the sons of the Highest. For he is kind to the unthankful and to the evil. 36 Be ye therefore merciful, as your Father also is merciful. 37 Judge not: and you shall not be judged. Condemn not: and you shall not be condemned. Forgive: and you shall be forgiven. 38 Give: and it shall be given to you: good measure and pressed down and shaken together and running over shall they give into your bosom. For with the same measure that you shall mete withal, it shall be measured to you again. 39 And he spoke also to them a similitude:

Lukas 10,1–24,53

1 And after these things, the Lord appointed also other seventy-two. And he sent them two and two before his face into every city and place whither he himself was to come. 2 And he said to them: The harvest indeed is great, but the labourers are few. Pray ye therefore the Lord of the harvest that he send labourers into his harvest. 3 Go: Behold I send you as lambs among wolves. 4 Carry neither purse, nor scrip, nor shoes: and salute no man by the way. 5 Into whatever house you enter, first say: Peace be to this house. 6 And if the son of peace be there, your peace shall rest upon him: but if not, it shall return to you. 7 And in the same house, remain, eating and drinking such things as they have: for the labourer is worthy of his hire. Remove not from house to house. 8 And into what city soever you enter, and they receive you, eat such things as are set before you. 9 And heal the sick that are therein and say to them: The kingdom of God is come nigh unto you. 10 But into whatsoever city you enter, and they receive you not, going forth into the streets thereof, say: 11 Even the very dust of your city that cleaveth to us, we wipe off against you. Yet know this, that the kingdom of God is at hand. 12 I say to you, it shall be more tolerable at that day for Sodom than for that city. 13 Woe to thee, Corozain! Woe to thee, Bethsaida! For if in Tyre and Sidon had been wrought the mighty works that have been wrought in you, they would have done penance long ago, sitting in sackcloth and ashes. 14 But it shall be more tolerable for Tyre and Sidon at the judgment than for you. 15 And thou, Capharnaum, which art exalted unto heaven, thou shalt be thrust down to hell. 16 He that heareth you heareth me: and he that despiseth you despiseth me: and he that despiseth me despiseth him that sent me. 17 And the seventy-two returned with joy, saying: Lord, the devils also are subject to us in thy name. 18 And he said to them: I saw Satan like lightning falling from heaven. 19 Behold, I have given you power to tread upon serpents and scorpions and upon all the power of the enemy: and nothing shall hurt you. 20 But yet rejoice not in this, that spirits are subject unto you: but rejoice in this, that your names are written in heaven. 21 In that same hour, he rejoiced in the Holy Ghost and said: I confess to thee, O Father, Lord of heaven and earth, because thou hast hidden these things from the wise and prudent and hast revealed them to little ones. Yea, Father, for so it hath seemed good in thy sight. 22 All things are delivered to me by my Father. And no one knoweth who the Son is, but the Father: and who the Father is, but the Son and to whom the Son will reveal him. 23 And turning to his disciples, he said: Blessed are the eyes that see the things which you see. 24 For I say to you that many prophets and kings have desired to see the things that you see and have not seen them; and to hear the things that you hear and have not heard them. 25 And behold a certain lawyer stood up, tempting him and saying, Master, what must I do to possess eternal life? 26 But he said to him: What is written in the law? How readest thou? 27 He answering, said: Thou shalt love the Lord thy God with thy whole heart and with thy whole soul and with all thy strength and with all thy mind: and thy neighbour as thyself. 28 And he said to him: Thou hast answered right. This do: and thou shalt live. 29 But he willing to justify himself, said to Jesus: And who is my neighbour? 30 And Jesus answering, said: A certain man went down from Jerusalem to Jericho and fell among robbers, who also stripped him and having wounded him went away, leaving him half dead. 31 And it chanced, that a certain priest went down the same way: and seeing him, passed by. 32 In like manner also a Levite, when he was near the place and saw him, passed by. 33 But a certain Samaritan, being on his journey, came near him: and seeing him, was moved with compassion: 34 And going up to him, bound up his wounds, pouring in oil and wine: and setting him upon his own beast, brought him to an inn and took care of him. 35 And the next day he took out two pence and gave to the host and said: Take care of him; and whatsoever thou shalt spend over and above, I, at my return, will repay thee. 36 Which of these three, in thy opinion, was neighbour to him that fell among the robbers? 37 But he said: He that shewed mercy to him. And Jesus said to him: Go, and do thou in like manner. 38 Now it came to pass, as they went, that he entered into a certain town: and a certain woman named Martha received him into her house. 39 And she had a sister called Mary. who, sitting also at the Lord’s feet, heard his word. 40 But Martha was busy about much serving. Who stood and said: Lord, hast thou no care that my sister hath left me alone to serve? Speak to her therefore, that she help me. 41 And the Lord answering, said to her: Martha, Martha, thou art careful and art troubled about many things: 42 But one thing is necessary. Mary hath chosen the best part, which shall not be taken away from her. 1 And it came to pass that as he was in a certain place praying, when he ceased, one of his disciples said to him: Lord, teach us to pray, as John also taught his disciples. 2 And he said to them: When you pray, say: Father, hallowed be thy name. Thy kingdom come. 3 Give us this day our daily bread. 4 And forgive us our sins, for we also forgive every one that is indebted to us. And lead us not into temptation. 5 And he said to them: Which of you shall have a friend and shall go to him at midnight and shall say to him: Friend, lend me three loaves, 6 Because a friend of mine is come off his journey to me and I have not what to set before him. 7 And he from within should answer and say: Trouble me not; the door is now shut, and my children are with me in bed. I cannot rise and give thee. 8 Yet if he shall continue knocking, I say to you, although he will not rise and give him because he is his friend; yet, because of his importunity, he will rise and give him as many as he needeth. 9 And I say to you: Ask, and it shall be given you: seek, and you shall find: knock, and it shall be opened to you. 10 For every one that asketh receiveth: and he that seeketh findeth: and to him that knocketh it shall be opened: 11 And which of you, if he ask his father bread, will he give him a stone? Or a fish, will he for a fish give him a serpent? 12 Or if he shall ask an egg, will he reach him a scorpion? 13 If you then, being evil, know how to give good gifts to your children, how much more will your Father from heaven give the good Spirit to them that ask him? 14 And he was casting out a devil: and the same was dumb. And when he had cast out the devil, the dumb spoke: and the multitudes, were in admiration at it. 15 But some of them said: He casteth out devils by Beelzebub, the prince of devils. 16 And others tempting, asked of him a sign from heaven. 17 But he seeing their thoughts, said to them: Every kingdom divided against itself shall be brought to desolation; and house upon house shall fall. 18 And if Satan also be divided against himself, how shall his kingdom stand? Because you say that through Beelzebub I cast out devils. 19 Now if I cast out devils by Beelzebub, by whom do your children cast them out? Therefore, they shall be your judges. 20 But if I by the finger of God cast out devils, doubtless the kingdom of God is come upon you. 21 When a strong man armed keepeth his court, those things are in peace which he possesseth. 22 But if a stronger than he come upon him and overcome him, he will take away all his armour wherein he trusted and will distribute his spoils. 23 He that is not with me is against me; and he that gathereth not with me scattereth. 24 When the unclean spirit is gone out of a man, he walketh through places without water, seeking rest: and not finding, he saith: I will return into my house whence I came out. 25 And when he is come, he findeth it swept and garnished. 26 Then he goeth and taketh with him seven other spirits more wicked than himself: and entering in they dwell there. And the last state of that man becomes worse than the first. 27 And it came to pass, as he spoke these things, a certain woman from the crowd, lifting up her voice, said to him: Blessed is the womb that bore thee and the paps that gave thee suck. 28 But he said: Yea rather, blessed are they who hear the word of God and keep it. 29 And the multitudes running together, he began to say: This generation is a wicked generation. It asketh a sign: and a sign shall not be given it, but the sign of Jonas the prophet. 30 For as Jonas was a sign to the Ninivites; so shall the Son of man also be to this generation. 31 The queen of the south shall rise in the judgment with the men of this generation and shall condemn them: because she came from the ends of the earth to hear the wisdom of Solomon. And behold more than Solomon here. 32 The men of Ninive shall rise in the judgment with this generation and shall condemn it; Because they did penance at the preaching of Jonas. And behold more than Jonas here. 33 No man lighteth a candle and putteth it in a hidden place, nor under a bushel: but upon a candlestick, that they that come in may see the light. 34 The light of thy body is thy eye. If thy eye be single, thy whole body will be lightsome: but if it be evil, thy body also will be darksome. 35 Take heed therefore that the light which is in thee be not darkness. 36 If then thy whole body be lightsome, having no part of darkness: the whole shall be lightsome and, as a bright lamp, shall enlighten thee. 37 And as he was speaking, a certain Pharisee prayed him that he would dine with him. And he going in, sat down to eat. 38 And the Pharisee began to say, thinking within himself, why he was not washed before dinner. 39 And the Lord said to him: Now you, Pharisees, make clean the outside of the cup and of the platter: but your inside is full of rapine and iniquity. 40 Ye fools, did not he that made that which is without make also that which is within? 41 But yet that which remaineth, give alms: and behold, all things are clean unto you. 42 But woe to you, Pharisees, because you tithe mint and rue and every herb and pass over judgment and the charity of God. Now these things you ought to have done, and not to leave the other undone. 43 Woe to you, Pharisees, because you love the uppermost seats in the synagogues and salutations in the marketplace. 44 Woe to you, because you are as sepulchres that appear not: and men that walk over are not aware. 45 And one of the lawyers answering, saith to him: Master, in saying these things, thou reproachest us also. 46 But he said: Woe to you lawyers also, because you load men with burdens which they cannot bear and you yourselves touch not the packs with one of your fingers. 47 Woe to you who build the monuments of the prophets: and your fathers killed them. 48 Truly you bear witness that you consent to the doings of your fathers. For they indeed killed them: and you build their sepulchres. 49 For this cause also the wisdom of God said: I will send to them prophets and apostles: and some of them they will kill and persecute. 50 That the blood of all the prophets which was shed from the foundation of the world may be required of this generation, 51 From the blood of Abel unto the blood of Zacharias, who was slain between the altar and the temple. Yea I say to you: It shall be required of this generation. 52 Woe to you lawyers, for you have taken away the key of knowledge. You yourselves have not entered in: and those that were entering in, you have hindered. 53 And as he was saying these things to them, the Pharisees and the lawyers began violently to urge him and to oppress his mouth about many things, 54 Lying in wait for him and seeking to catch something from his mouth, that they might accuse him. 1 And when great multitudes stood about him, so that they trod one upon another, he began to say to his disciples: Beware ye of the leaven of the Pharisees, which is hypocrisy. 2 For there is nothing covered that shall not be revealed: nor hidden that shall not be known. 3 For whatsoever things you have spoken in darkness shall be published in the light: and that which you have spoken in the ear in the chambers shall be preached on the housetops. 4 And I say to you, my friends: Be not afraid of them who kill the body and after that have no more that they can do. 5 But I will shew you whom you shall fear: Fear ye him who, after he hath killed, hath power to cast into hell. Yea, I say to you: Fear him. 6 Are not five sparrows sold for two farthings, and not one of them is forgotten before God? 7 Yea, the very hairs of your head are all numbered. Fear not therefore: you are of more value than many sparrows. 8 And I say to you: Whosoever shall confess me before men, him shall the Son of man also confess before the angels of God. 9 But he that shall deny me before men shall be denied before the angels of God. 10 And whosoever speaketh a word against the Son of man, it shall be forgiven him: but to him that shall blaspheme against the Holy Ghost, it shall not be forgiven. 11 And when they shall bring you into the synagogues and to magistrates and powers, be not solicitous how or what you shall answer, or what you shall say. 12 For the Holy Ghost shall teach you in the same hour what you must say. 13 And one of the multitude said to him: Master, speak to my brother that he divide the inheritance with me. 14 But he said to him: Man, who hath appointed me judge or divider over you? 15 And he said to them: Take heed and beware of all covetousness: for a man’s life doth not consist in the abundance of things which he possesseth. 16 And he spoke a similitude to them, saying: The land of a certain rich man brought forth plenty of fruits. 17 And he thought within himself, saying: What shall I do, because I have no room where to bestow my fruits? 18 And he said: This will I do: I will pull down my barns and will build greater: and into them will I gather all things that are grown to me and my goods. 19 And I will say to my soul: Soul, thou hast much goods laid up for many years. Take thy rest: eat, drink, make good cheer. 20 But God said to him: Thou fool, this night do they require thy soul of thee. And whose shall those things be which thou hast provided? 21 So is he that layeth up treasure for himself and is not rich towards God. 22 And he said to his disciples: Therefore I say to you: Be not solicitous for your life, what you shall eat, nor for your body, what you shall put on. 23 The life is more than the meat: and the body is more than the raiment. 24 Consider the ravens, for they sow not, neither do they reap, neither have they storehouse nor barn, and God feedeth them. How much are you more valuable

Bibel Johannes 1,6–13,38

6 There was a man sent from God, whose name was John. 7 This man came for a witness, to give testimony of the light, that all men might believe through him. 8 He was not the light, but was to give testimony of the light. 9 That was the true light, which enlighteneth every man that cometh into this world. 10 He was in the world: and the world was made by him: and the world knew him not. 11 He came unto his own: and his own received him not. 12 But as many as received him, he gave them power to be made the sons of God, to them that believe in his name. 13 Who are born, not of blood, nor of the will of the flesh, nor of the will of man, but of God. 14 And the Word was made flesh and dwelt among us (and we saw his glory, the glory as it were of the only begotten of the Father), full of grace and truth. 15 John beareth witness of him and crieth out, saying: This was he of whom I spoke: He that shall come after me is preferred before me: because he was before me. 16 And of his fulness we all have received: and grace for grace. 17 For the law was given by Moses: grace and truth came by Jesus Christ. 18 No man hath seen God at any time: the only begotten Son who is in the Bosom of the Father, he hath declared him. 19 And this is the testimony of John, when the Jews sent from Jerusalem priests and Levites to him, to ask him: Who art thou? 20 And he confessed and did not deny: and he confessed: I am not the Christ. 21 And they asked him: What then? Art thou Elias? And he said: I am not. Art thou the prophet? And he answered: No. 22 They said therefore unto him: Who art thou, that we may give an answer to them that sent us? What sayest thou of thyself? 23 He said: I am the voice of one crying in the wilderness, make straight the way of the Lord, as said the prophet Isaias. 24 And they that were sent were of the Pharisees. 25 And they asked him and said to him: Why then dost thou baptize, if thou be not Christ, nor Elias, nor the prophet? 26 John answered them, saying: I baptize with water: but there hath stood one in the midst of you, whom you know not. 27 The same is he that shall come after me, who is preferred before me: the latchet of whose shoe I am not worthy to loose. 28 These things were done in Bethania, beyond the Jordan, where John was baptizing. 29 The next day, John saw Jesus coming to him; and he saith: Behold the Lamb of God. Behold him who taketh away the sin of the world. 30 This is he of whom I said: After me there cometh a man, who is preferred before me: because he was before me. 31 And I knew him not: but that he may be made manifest in Israel, therefore am I come baptizing with water. 32 And John gave testimony, saying: I saw the Spirit coming down, as a dove from heaven; and he remained upon him. 33 And I knew him not: but he who sent me to baptize with water said to me: He upon whom thou shalt see the Spirit descending and remaining upon him, he it is that baptizeth with the Holy Ghost. 34 And I saw: and I gave testimony that this is the Son of God. 35 The next day again John stood and two of his disciples. 36 And beholding Jesus walking, he saith: Behold the Lamb of God. 37 And the two disciples heard him speak: and they followed Jesus. 38 And Jesus turning and seeing them following him, saith to them: What seek you? Who said to him: Rabbi (which is to say, being interpreted, Master), where dwellest thou? 39 He saith to them: Come and see. They came and saw where he abode: and they stayed with him that day. Now it was about the tenth hour. 40 And Andrew, the brother of Simon Peter, was one of the two who had heard of John and followed him. 41 He findeth first his brother Simon and saith to him: We have found the Messias, which is, being interpreted, the Christ. 42 And he brought him to Jesus. And Jesus looking upon him, said: Thou art Simon the son of Jona. Thou shalt be called Cephas, which is interpreted Peter. 43 On the following day, he would go forth into Galilee: and he findeth Philip, And Jesus saith to him: follow me. 44 Now Philip was of Bethsaida, the city of Andrew and Peter. 45 Philip findeth Nathanael and saith to him: We have found him of whom Moses, in the law and the prophets did write, Jesus the son of Joseph of Nazareth. 46 And Nathanael said to him: Can any thing of good come from Nazareth? Philip saith to him: Come and see. 47 Jesus saw Nathanael coming to him and he saith of him: Behold an Israelite indeed, in whom there is no guile. 48 Nathanael saith to him: Whence knowest thou me? Jesus answered and said to him: Before that Philip called thee, when thou wast under the fig tree, I saw thee. 49 Nathanael answered him and said: Rabbi: Thou art the Son of God. Thou art the King of Israel. 50 Jesus answered and said to him: Because I said unto thee, I saw thee under the fig tree, thou believest: greater things than these shalt thou see. 51 And he saith to him: Amen, amen, I say to you, you shall see the heaven opened and the angels of God ascending and descending upon the Son of man. 1 And the third day, there was a marriage in Cana of Galilee: and the mother of Jesus was there. 2 And Jesus also was invited, and his disciples, to the marriage. 3 And the wine failing, the mother of Jesus saith to him: They have no wine. 4 And Jesus saith to her: Woman, what is that to me and to thee? My hour is not yet come. 5 His mother saith to the waiters: Whatsoever he shall say to you, do ye. 6 Now there were set there six waterpots of stone, according to the manner of the purifying of the Jews, containing two or three measures apiece. 7 Jesus saith to them: Fill the waterpots with water. And they filled them up to the brim. 8 And Jesus saith to them: Draw out now and carry to the chief steward of the feast. And they carried it. 9 And when the chief steward had tasted the water made wine and knew not whence it was, but the waiters knew who had drawn the water: the chief steward calleth the bridegroom, 10 And saith to him: Every man at first setteth forth good wine, and when men have well drunk, then that which is worse. But thou hast kept the good wine until now. 11 This beginning of miracles did Jesus in Cana of Galilee and manifested his glory. And his disciples believed in him. 12 After this, he went down to Capharnaum, he and his mother and his brethren and his disciples: and they remained there not many days. 13 And the pasch of the Jews was at hand: and Jesus went up to Jerusalem. 14 And he found in the temple them that sold oxen and sheep and doves, and the changers of money sitting. 15 And when he had made, as it were, a scourge of little cords, he drove them all out of the temple, the sheep also and the oxen: and the money of the changers he poured out, and the tables he overthrew. 16 And to them that sold doves he said: Take these things hence, and make not the house of my Father a house of traffic. 17 And his disciples remembered, that it was written: The zeal of thy house hath eaten me up. 18 The Jews, therefore, answered, and said to him: What sign dost thou shew unto us, seeing thou dost these things? 19 Jesus answered and said to them: Destroy this temple; and in three days I will raise it up. 20 The Jews then said: Six and forty years was this temple in building; and wilt thou raise it up in three days? 21 But he spoke of the temple of his body. 22 When therefore he was risen again from the dead, his disciples remembered that he had said this: and they believed the scripture and the word that Jesus had said. 23 Now when he was at Jerusalem, at the pasch, upon the festival day, many believed in his name, seeing his signs which he did. 24 But Jesus did not trust himself unto them: for that he knew all men, 25 And because he needed not that any should give testimony of man: for he knew what was in man. 1 And there was a man of the Pharisees, named Nicodemus, a ruler of the Jews. 2 This man came to Jesus by night and said to him: Rabbi, we know that thou art come a teacher from God; for no man can do these signs which thou dost, unless God be with him. 3 Jesus answered and said to him: Amen, amen, I say to thee, unless a man be born again, he cannot see the kingdom of God. 4 Nicodemus saith to him: How can a man be born when he is old? Can he enter a second time into his mother’s womb and be born again? 5 Jesus answered: Amen, amen, I say to thee, unless a man be born again of water and the Holy Ghost, he cannot enter into the kingdom of God. 6 That which is born of the flesh is flesh: and that which is born of the Spirit is spirit. 7 Wonder not that I said to thee: You must be born again. 8 The Spirit breatheth where he will and thou hearest his voice: but thou knowest not whence he cometh and whither he goeth. So is every one that is born of the Spirit. 9 Nicodemus answered and said to him: How can these things be done? 10 Jesus answered and said to him: Art thou a master in Israel, and knowest not these things? 11 Amen, amen, I say to thee that we speak what we know and we testify what we have seen: and you receive not our testimony. 12 If I have spoken to you earthly things, and you believe not: how will you believe, if I shall speak to you heavenly things? 13 And no man hath ascended into heaven, but he that descended from heaven, the Son of man who is in heaven. 14 And as Moses lifted up the serpent in the desert, so must the Son of man be lifted up: 15 That whosoever believeth in him may not perish, but may have life everlasting. 16 For God so loved the world, as to give his only begotten Son: that whosoever believeth in him may not perish, but may have life everlasting. 17 For God sent not his Son into the world, to judge the world: but that the world may be saved by him. 18 He that believeth in him is not judged. But he that doth not believe is already judged: because he believeth not in the name of the only begotten Son of God. 19 And this is the judgment: Because the light is come into the world and men loved darkness rather than the light: for their works were evil. 20 For every one that doth evil hateth the light and cometh not to the light, that his works may not be reproved. 21 But he that doth truth cometh to the light, that his works may be made manifest: because they are done in God. 22 After these things, Jesus and his disciples came into the land of Judea: and there he abode with them and baptized. 23 And John also was baptizing in Ennon near Salim: because there was much water there. And they came and were baptized. 24 For John was not yet cast into prison. 25 And there arose a question between some of John’s disciples and the Jews, concerning purification. 26 And they came to John and said to him: Rabbi, he that was with thee beyond the Jordan, to whom thou gavest testimony: behold, he baptizeth and all men come to him. 27 John answered and said: A man cannot receive any thing, unless it be given him from heaven. 28 You yourselves do bear me witness that I said that I am not Christ, but that I am sent before him. 29 He that hath the bride is the bridegroom: but the friend of the bridegroom, who standeth and heareth Him, rejoiceth with joy because of the bridegroom’s voice. This my joy therefore is fulfilled. 30 He must increase: but I must decrease. 31 He that cometh from above is above all. He that is of the earth, of the earth he is, and of the earth he speaketh. He that cometh from heaven is above all. 32 And what he hath seen and heard, that he testifieth: and no man receiveth his testimony. 33 He that hath received his testimony hath set to his seal that God is true. 34 For he whom God hath sent speaketh the words of God: for God doth not give the Spirit by measure. 35 The Father loveth the Son: and he hath given all things into his hand. 36 He that believeth in the Son hath life everlasting: but he that believeth not the Son shall not see life: but the wrath of God abideth on him. 1 When Jesus therefore understood the Pharisees had heard that Jesus maketh more disciples and baptizeth more than John 2 (Though Jesus himself did not baptize, but his disciples), 3 He left Judea and went again into Galilee. 4 And he was of necessity to pass through Samaria. 5 He cometh therefore to a city of Samaria, which is called Sichar, near the land which Jacob gave to his son Joseph. 6 Now Jacob’s well was there. Jesus therefore, being wearied with his journey, sat thus on the well. It was about the sixth hour. 7 There cometh a woman of Samaria, to draw water. Jesus saith to her: Give me to drink. 8 For his disciples were gone into the city to buy meats. 9 Then that Samaritan woman saith to him: How dost thou, being a Jew; ask of me to drink, who am a Samaritan woman? For the Jews do not communicate with the Samaritans. 10 Jesus answered and said to her: If thou didst know the gift of God and who he is that saith to thee: Give me to drink; thou perhaps wouldst have asked of him, and he would have given thee living water. 11 The woman saith to him: Sir, thou hast nothing wherein to draw, and the well is deep. From whence then hast thou living water? 12 Art thou greater than our father Jacob, who gave us the well and drank thereof, himself and his children and his cattle? 13 Jesus answered and said to her: Whosoever drinketh of this water shall thirst again: but he that shall drink of the water that I will give him shall not thirst for ever. 14 But the water that I will give him shall become in him a fountain of water, springing up into life everlasting. 15 The woman said to him: Sir, give me this water, that I may not thirst, nor come hither to draw. 16 Jesus saith to her: Go, call thy husband, and come hither. 17 The woman answered and said: I have no husband. Jesus said to her: Thou hast said well: I have no husband. 18 For thou hast had five husbands: and he whom thou now hast is not thy husband. This, thou hast said truly. 19 The woman saith to him: Sir, I perceive that thou art a prophet. 20 Our fathers adored on this mountain: and you say that at Jerusalem is the place where men must adore. 21 Jesus saith to her: Woman, believe me that the hour cometh, when you shall neither on this mountain, nor in Jerusalem, adore the Father. 22 You adore that which you know not: we adore that which we know. For salvation is of the Jews. 23 But the hour cometh and now is, when the true adorers shall adore the Father in spirit and in truth. For the Father also seeketh such to adore him. 24 God is a spirit: and they that adore him must adore him in spirit and in truth. 25 The woman saith to him: I know that the Messias cometh (who is called Christ): therefore, when he is come, he will tell us all things. 26 Jesus saith to her: I am he, who am speaking with thee. 27 And immediately his disciples came. And they wondered that he talked with the woman. Yet no man said: What seekest thou? Or: Why talkest thou with her? 28 The woman

Johannes 15,1–21,23

1 I am the true vine: and my Father is the husbandman. 2 Every branch in me that beareth not fruit, he will take away: and every one that beareth fruit, he will purge it, that it may bring forth more fruit. 3 Now you are clean, by reason of the word which I have spoken to you. 4 Abide in me: and I in you. As the branch cannot bear fruit of itself, unless it abide in the vine, so neither can you, unless you abide in me. 5 I am the vine: you the branches. He that abideth in me, and I in him, the same beareth much fruit: for without me you can do nothing. 6 If any one abide not in me, he shall be cast forth as a branch and shall wither: and they shall gather him up and cast him into the fire: and he burneth. 7 If you abide in me and my words abide in you, you shall ask whatever you will: and it shall be done unto you. 8 In this is my Father glorified: that you bring forth very much fruit and become my disciples. 9 As the Father hath loved me, I also have loved you. Abide in my love. 10 If you keep my commandments, you shall abide in my love: as I also have kept my Father’s commandments and do abide in his love. 11 These things I have spoken to you, that my joy may be in you, and your joy may be filled. 12 This is my commandment, that you love one another, as I have loved you. 13 Greater love than this no man hath, that a man lay down his life for his friends. 14 You are my friends, if you do the things that I command you. 15 I will not now call you servants: for the servant knoweth not what his lord doth. But I have called you friends: because all things, whatsoever I have heard of my Father, I have made known to you. 16 You have not chosen me: but I have chosen you; and have appointed you, that you should go and should bring forth fruit; and your fruit should remain: that whatsoever you shall ask of the Father in my name, he may give it you. 17 These things I command you, that you love one another. 18 If the world hate you, know ye that it hath hated me before you. 19 If you had been of the world, the world would love its own: but because you are not of the world, but I have chosen you out of the world, therefore the world hateth you. 20 Remember my word that I said to you: The servant is not greater than his master. If they have persecuted me, they will also persecute you. If they have kept my word, they will keep yours also. 21 But all these things they will do to you for my name’s sake: because they know not him that sent me. 22 If I had not come and spoken to them, they would not have sin: but now they have no excuse for their sin. 23 He that hateth me hateth my Father also. 24 If I had not done among them the works that no other man hath done, they would not have sin: but now they have both seen and hated both me and my Father. 25 But that the word may be fulfilled which is written in their law: they hated me without cause. 26 But when the Paraclete cometh, whom I will send you from the Father, the Spirit of truth, who proceedeth from the Father, he shall give testimony of me. 27 And you shall give testimony, because you are with me from the beginning. 1 These things have I spoken to you, that you may not be scandalized. 2 They will put you out of the synagogues: yea, the hour cometh, that whosoever killeth you will think that he doth a service to God. 3 And these things will they do to you; because they have not known the Father nor me. 4 But these things I have told you, that when the hour shall come, you may remember that I told you of them. 5 But I told you not these things from the beginning, because I was with you. And now I go to him that sent me, and none of you asketh me: Whither goest thou? 6 But because I have spoken these things to you, sorrow hath filled your heart. 7 But I tell you the truth: it is expedient to you that I go. For if I go not, the Paraclete will not come to you: but if I go, I will send him to you. 8 And when he is come, he will convince the world of sin and of justice and of judgment. 9 Of sin: because they believed not in me. 10 And of justice: because I go to the Father: and you shall see me no longer. 11 And of judgment: because the prince of this world is already judged. 12 I have yet many things to say to you: but you cannot bear them now. 13 But when he, the Spirit of truth, is come, he will teach you all truth. For he shall not speak of himself: but what things soever he shall hear, he shall speak. And the things that are to come, he shall shew you. 14 He shall glorify me: because he shall receive of mine and shall shew it to you. 15 All things whatsoever the Father hath are mine. Therefore I said that he shall receive of me and shew it to you. 16 A little while, and now you shall not see me: and again a little while, and you shall see me: because I go to the Father. 17 Then some of his disciples said one to another: What is this that he saith to us: A little while, and you shall not see me: and again a little while, and you shall see me, and, Because I go to the Father? 18 They said therefore: What is this that he saith, A little while? We know not what he speaketh. 19 And Jesus knew that they had a mind to ask him. And he said to them: Of this do you inquire among yourselves, because I said: A little while, and you shall not see me; and again a little while, and you shall see me? 20 Amen, amen, I say to you, that you shall lament and weep, but the world shall rejoice: and you shall be made sorrowful, but your sorrow shall be turned into joy. 21 A woman, when she is in labour, hath sorrow, because her hour is come; but when she hath brought forth the child, she remembereth no more the anguish, for joy that a man is born into the world. 22 So also you now indeed have sorrow: but I will see you again and your heart shall rejoice. And your joy no man shall take from you. 23 And in that day you shall not ask me any thing. Amen, amen, I say to you: if you ask the Father any thing in my name, he will give it you. 24 Hitherto, you have not asked any thing in my name. Ask, and you shall receive; that your joy may be full. 25 These things I have spoken to you in proverbs. The hour cometh when I will no longer speak to you in proverbs, but will shew you plainly of the Father. 26 In that day, you shall ask in my name: and I say not to you that I will ask the Father for you. 27 For the Father himself loveth you, because you have loved me and have believed that I came out from God. 28 I came forth from the Father and am come into the world: again I leave the world and I go to the Father. 29 His disciples say to him: Behold, now thou speakest plainly and speakest no proverb. 30 Now we know that thou knowest all things and thou needest not that any man should ask thee. By this we believe that thou camest forth from God. 31 Jesus answered them: Do you now believe? 32 Behold, the hour cometh, and it is now come, that you shall be scattered every man to his own and shall leave me alone. And yet I am not alone, because the Father is with me. 33 These things I have spoken to you, that in me you may have peace. In the world you shall have distress. But have confidence. I have overcome the world. 1 These things Jesus spoke: and lifting up his eyes to heaven, he said: the hour is come. Glorify thy Son, that thy Son may glorify thee. 2 As thou hast given him power over all flesh, that he may give eternal life to all whom thou hast given him. 3 Now this is eternal life: That they may know thee, the only true God, and Jesus Christ, whom thou hast sent. 4 I have glorified thee on the earth; I have finished the work which thou gavest me to do. 5 And now glorify thou me, O Father, with thyself, with the glory which I had, before the world was, with thee. 6 I have manifested thy name to the men whom thou hast given me out of the world. Thine they were: and to me thou gavest them. And they have kept thy word. 7 Now they have known that all things which thou hast given me are from thee: 8 Because the words which thou gavest me, I have given to them. And they have received them and have known in very deed that I came out from thee: and they have believed that thou didst send me. 9 I pray for them. I pray not for the world, but for them whom thou hast given me: because they are thine. 10 And all my things are thine, and thine are mine: and I am glorified in them. 11 And now I am not in the world, and these are in the world, and I come to thee. Holy Father, keep them in thy name whom thou hast given me: that they may be one, as we also are. 12 While I was with them, I kept them in thy name. Those whom thou gavest me have I kept: and none of them is lost, but the son of perdition: that the scripture may be fulfilled. 13 And now I come to thee: and these things I speak in the world, that they may have my joy filled in themselves. 14 I have given them thy word, and the world hath hated them: because they are not of the world, as I also am not of the world. 15 I pray not that thou shouldst take them out of the world, but that thou shouldst keep them from evil. 16 They are not of the world, as I also am not of the world. 17 Sanctify them in truth. Thy word is truth. 18 As thou hast sent me into the world, I also have sent them into the world. 19 And for them do I sanctify myself, that they also may be sanctified in truth. 20 And not for them only do I pray, but for them also who through their word shall believe in me. 21 That they all may be one, as thou, Father, in me, and I in thee; that they also may be one in us: that the world may believe that thou hast sent me. 22 And the glory which thou hast given me, I have given to them: that, they may be one, as we also are one. 23 I in them, and thou in me: that they may be made perfect in one: and the world may know that thou hast sent me and hast loved them, as thou hast also loved me. 24 Father, I will that where I am, they also whom thou hast given me may be with me: that they may see my glory which thou hast given me, because thou hast loved me before the creation of the world. 25 Just Father, the world hath not known thee: but I have known thee. And these have known that thou hast sent me. 26 And I have made known thy name to them and will make it known: that the love wherewith thou hast loved me may be in them, and I in them. 1 When Jesus had said these things, he went forth with his disciples over the brook Cedron, where there was a garden, into which he entered with his disciples. 2 And Judas also, who betrayed him, knew the place: because Jesus had often resorted thither together with his disciples. 3 Judas therefore having received a band of soldiers and servants from the chief priests and the Pharisees, cometh thither with lanterns and torches and weapons. 4 Jesus therefore, knowing all things that should come upon him, went forth and said to them: Whom seek ye? 5 They answered him: Jesus of Nazareth. Jesus saith to them: I am he. And Judas also, who betrayed him, stood with them. 6 As soon therefore as he had said to them: I am he; they went backward and fell to the ground. 7 Again therefore he asked them: Whom seek ye? And they said: Jesus of Nazareth. 8 Jesus answered: I have told you that I am he. If therefore you seek me, let these go their way, 9 That the word might be fulfilled which he said: Of them whom thou hast given me, I have not lost any one. 10 Then Simon Peter, having a sword, drew it and struck the servant of the high priest and cut off his right ear. And the name of the servant was Malchus. 11 Jesus therefore said to Peter: Put up thy sword into the scabbard. The chalice which my father hath given me, shall I not drink it? 12 Then the band and the tribune and the servants of the Jews took Jesus and bound him. 13 And they led him away to Annas first, for he was father-in-law to Caiphas, who was the high priest of that year. 14 Now Caiphas was he who had given the counsel to the Jews: That it was expedient that one man should die for the people. 15 And Simon Peter followed Jesus: and so did another disciple. And that disciple was known to the high priest and went in with Jesus into the court of the high priest. 16 But Peter stood at the door without. The other disciple therefore, who was known to the high priest, went out and spoke to the portress and brought in Peter. 17 The maid therefore that was portress saith to Peter: Art not thou also one of this man’s disciple? He saith I am not. 18 Now the servants and ministers stood at a fire of coals, because it was cold, and warmed themselves. And with them was Peter also, standing and warming himself. 19 The high priest therefore asked Jesus of his disciples and of his doctrine. 20 Jesus answered him: I have spoken openly to the world. I have always taught in the synagogue and in the temple, whither all the Jews resort: and in secret I have spoken nothing. 21 Why askest thou me? Ask them who have heard what I have spoken unto them. Behold they know what things I have said. 22 And when he had said these things, one of the servants standing by gave Jesus a blow, saying: Answerest thou the high priest so? 23 Jesus answered him: If I have spoken evil, give testimony of the evil; but if well, why strikest thou me? 24 And Annas sent him bound to Caiphas the high priest. 25 And Simon Peter was standing and warming himself. They said therefore to him: Art not thou also one of his disciples? He denied it and said: I am not. 26 One of the servants of the high priest (a kinsman to him whose ear Peter cut off) saith to him: Did not I see thee in the garden with him? 27 Again therefore Peter denied: and immediately the cock crew. 28 Then they led Jesus from Caiphas to the governor’s hall. And it was morning: and they went not into the hall, that they might not be defiled, but that they might eat the pasch. 29 Pilate therefore went out to them, and said: What accusation bring you against this man? 30 They answered and said to him: If he were not a malefactor, we would not have delivered him up to thee. 31 Pilate therefore said to them: Take him you, and judge him according to your law. The Jews therefore said to him: It is not lawful for us to put any man to death. 32 That the word of Jesus might be fulfilled, which he said, signifying what death he should die. 33 Pilate therefore went into the hall again and called Jesus and said to him: Art thou the king of the Jews? 34 Jesus answered: Sayest thou this thing of thyself, or have others told it thee of me? 35 Pilate answered: Am I a Jew? Thy own nation and the chief priests have delivered thee up to me. What hast thou done? 36 Jesus answered: My kingdom is not of this world. If my kingdom were of this world, my servants would certainly strive that I should not be delivered to the Jews: but now my kingdom is not from hence. 37 Pilate therefore said to him: Art thou a king then? Jesus answered: Thou sayest that

Apostelgeschichte 1,1–19

1 The former treatise I made, O Theophilus, of all things which Jesus began to do and to teach, 2 Until the day on which, giving commandments by the Holy Ghost to the apostles whom he had chosen, he was taken up. 3 To whom also he shewed himself alive after his passion, by many proofs, for forty days appearing to them, and speaking of the kingdom of God. 4 And eating together with them, he commanded them, that they should not depart from Jerusalem, but should wait for the promise of the Father, which you have heard (saith he) by my mouth. 5 For John indeed baptized with water: but you shall be baptized with the Holy Ghost, not many days hence. 6 They therefore who were come together, asked him, saying: Lord, wilt thou at this time restore again the kingdom of Israel? 7 But he said to them: It is not for you to know the time or moments, which the Father hath put in his own power: 8 But you shall receive the power of the Holy Ghost coming upon you, and you shall be witnesses unto me in Jerusalem, and in all Judea, and Samaria, and even to the uttermost part of the earth. 9 And when he had said these things, while they looked on, he was raised up: and a cloud received him out of their sight. 10 And while they were beholding him going up to heaven, behold two men stood by them in white garments. 11 Who also said: Ye men of Galilee, why stand you looking up to heaven? This Jesus who is taken up from you into heaven, shall so come as you have seen him going into heaven. 12 Then they returned to Jerusalem from the mount that is called Olivet, which is nigh Jerusalem, within a sabbath day’s journey. 13 And when they were come in, they went up into an upper room, where abode Peter and John, James and Andrew, Philip and Thomas, Bartholomew and Matthew, James of Alpheus and Simon Zelotes and Jude the brother of James. 14 All these were persevering with one mind in prayer with the women, and Mary the mother of Jesus, and with his brethren. 15 In those days Peter rising up in the midst of the brethren, said (now the number of persons together was about an hundred and twenty): 16 Men, brethren, the scripture must needs be fulfilled, which the Holy Ghost spoke before by the mouth of David concerning Judas, who was the leader of them that apprehended Jesus: 17 Who was numbered with us, and had obtained part of this ministry. 18 And he indeed hath possessed a field of the reward of iniquity, and being hanged, burst asunder in the midst: and all his bowels gushed out. 19 And it became known to all the inhabitants of Jerusalem: so that the same field was called in their tongue, Haceldama, that is to say, The field of blood.

1. Korinther 15,6–7

6 Then was he seen by more than five hundred brethren at once: of whom many remain until this present, and some are fallen asleep. 7 After that, he was seen by James: then by all the apostles.

Matthäus 1,18–19,22

18 Now the generation of Christ was in this wise. When as his mother Mary was espoused to Joseph, before they came together, she was found with child, of the Holy Ghost. 19 Whereupon Joseph her husband, being a just man, and not willing publicly to expose her, was minded to put her away privately. 20 But while he thought on these things, behold the Angel of the Lord appeared to him in his sleep, saying: Joseph, son of David, fear not to take unto thee Mary thy wife, for that which is conceived in her, is of the Holy Ghost. 21 And she shall bring forth a son: and thou shalt call his name Jesus. For he shall save his people from their sins. 22 Now all this was done that it might be fulfilled which the Lord spoke by the prophet, saying: 23 Behold a virgin shall be with child, and bring forth a son, and they shall call his name Emmanuel, which being interpreted is, God with us. 24 And Joseph rising up from sleep, did as the angel of the Lord had commanded him, and took unto him his wife. 25 And he knew her not till she brought forth her first born son: and he called his name Jesus. 1 When Jesus therefore was born in Bethlehem of Juda, in the days of king Herod, behold, there came wise men from the East to Jerusalem, 2 Saying: Where is he that is born king of the Jews? For we have seen his star in the East, and are come to adore him. 3 And king Herod hearing this, was troubled, and all Jerusalem with him. 4 And assembling together all the chief priests and the scribes of the people, he inquired of them where Christ should be born. 5 But they said to him: In Bethlehem of Juda. For so it is written by the prophet: 6 And thou Bethlehem the land of Juda art not the least among the princes of Juda: for out of thee shall come forth the captain that shall rule my people Israel. 7 Then Herod, privately calling the wise men, learned diligently of them the time of the star which appeared to them; 8 And sending them into Bethlehem, said: Go and diligently inquire after the child, and when you have found him, bring me word again, that I also may come and adore him. 9 Who having heard the king, went their way; and behold the star which they had seen in the East, went before them, until it came and stood over where the child was. 10 And seeing the star they rejoiced with exceeding great joy. 11 And entering into the house, they found the child with Mary his mother, and falling down they adored him: and opening their treasures, they offered him gifts; gold, frankincense, and myrrh. 12 And having received an answer in sleep that they should not return to Herod, they went back another way into their country. 13 And after they were departed, behold an angel of the Lord appeared in sleep to Joseph, saying: Arise, and take the child and his mother, and fly into Egypt: and be there until I shall tell thee. For it will come to pass that Herod will seek the child to destroy him. 14 Who arose, and took the child and his mother by night, and retired into Egypt: and he was there until the death of Herod: 15 That it might be fulfilled which the Lord spoke by the prophet, saying: Out of Egypt have I called my son. 16 Then Herod perceiving that he was deluded by the wise men, was exceeding angry: and sending killed all the menchildren that were in Bethlehem, and in all the borders thereof, from two years old and under, according to the time which he had diligently inquired of the wise men. 17 Then was fulfilled that which was spoken by Jeremias the prophet, saying: 18 A voice in Rama was heard, lamentation and great mourning; Rachel bewailing her children, and would not be comforted, because they are not. 19 But when Herod was dead, behold an angel of the Lord appeared in sleep to Joseph in Egypt, 20 Saying: Arise, and take the child and his mother, and go into the land of Israel. For they are dead that sought the life of the child. 21 Who arose, and took the child and his mother, and came into the land of Israel. 22 But hearing that Archelaus reigned in Judea in the room of Herod his father, he was afraid to go thither: and being warned in sleep retired into the quarters of Galilee. 23 And coming he dwelt in a city called Nazareth: that it might be fulfilled which was said by the prophets: That he shall be called a Nazarene. 1 And in those days cometh John the Baptist preaching in the desert of Judea. 2 And saying: Do penance: for the kingdom of heaven is at hand. 3 For this is he that was spoken of by Isaias the prophet, saying: A voice of one crying in the desert, Prepare ye the way of the Lord, make straight his paths. 4 And the same John had his garment of camel’s hair, and a leathern girdle about his loins: and his meat was locusts and wild honey. 5 Then went out to him Jerusalem and all Judea, and all the country about Jordan: 6 And were baptized by him in the Jordan, confessing their sins. 7 And seeing many of the Pharisees and Sadducees coming to his baptism, he said to them: Ye brood of vipers, who hath shewed you to flee from the wrath to come? 8 Bring forth therefore fruit worthy of penance. 9 And think not to say within yourselves, We have Abraham for our father. For I tell you that God is able of these stones to raise up children to Abraham. 10 For now the axe is laid to the root of the trees. Every tree therefore that doth not yield good fruit, shall be cut down, and cast into the fire. 11 I indeed baptize you in water unto penance, but he that shall come after me, is mightier than I, whose shoes I am not worthy to bear: he shall baptize you in the Holy Ghost and fire. 12 Whose fan is in his hand, and he will thoroughly cleanse his floor and gather his wheat into the barn; but the chaff he will burn with unquenchable fire. 13 Then cometh Jesus from Galilee to the Jordan, unto John, to be baptized by him. 14 But John stayed him, saying: I ought to be baptized by thee, and comest thou to me? 15 And Jesus answering, said to him: Suffer it to be so now. For so it becometh us to fulfil all justice. Then he suffered him. 16 And Jesus being baptized, forthwith came out of the water: and lo, the heavens were opened to him: and he saw the Spirit of God descending as a dove, and coming upon him. 17 And behold a voice from heaven saying: This is my beloved Son, in whom I am well pleased. 1 Then Jesus was led by the spirit into the desert, to be tempted by the devil. 2 And when he had fasted forty days and forty nights, afterwards he was hungry. 3 And the tempter coming said to him: If thou be the Son of God, command that these stones be made bread. 4 Who answered and said: It is written, Not in bread alone doth man live, but in every word that proceedeth from the mouth of God. 5 Then the devil took him up into the holy city, and set him upon the pinnacle of the temple, 6 And said to him: If thou be the Son of God, cast thyself down, for it is written: That he hath given his angels charge over thee, and in their hands shall they bear thee up, lest perhaps thou dash thy foot against a stone. 7 Jesus said to him: It is written again: Thou shalt not tempt the Lord thy God. 8 Again the devil took him up into a very high mountain, and shewed him all the kingdoms of the world, and the glory of them, 9 And said to him: All these will I give thee, if falling down thou wilt adore me. 10 Then Jesus saith to him: Begone, Satan: for it is written: The Lord thy God shalt thou adore, and him only shalt thou serve. 11 Then the devil left him; and behold angels came and ministered to him. 12 And when Jesus had heard that John was delivered up, he retired into Galilee: 13 And leaving the city Nazareth, he came and dwelt in Capharnaum on the sea coast, in the borders of Zabulon and of Nephthalim; 14 That it might be fulfilled which was said by Isaias the prophet: 15 Land of Zabulon and land of Nephthalim, the way of the sea beyond the Jordan, Galilee of the Gentiles: 16 The people that sat in darkness, hath seen great light: and to them that sat in the region of the shadow of death, light is sprung up. 17 From that time Jesus began to preach, and to say: Do penance, for the kingdom of heaven is at hand. 18 And Jesus walking by the sea of Galilee, saw two brethren, Simon who is called Peter, and Andrew his brother, casting a net into the sea (for they were fishers). 19 And he saith to them: Come ye after me, and I will make you to be fishers of men. 20 And they immediately leaving their nets, followed him. 21 And going on from thence, he saw other two brethren, James the son of Zebedee, and John his brother, in a ship with Zebedee their father, mending their nets: and he called them. 22 And they forthwith left their nets and father, and followed him. 23 And Jesus went about all Galilee, teaching in their synagogues, and preaching the gospel of the kingdom: and healing all manner of sickness and every infirmity, among the people. 24 And his fame went throughout all Syria, and they presented to him all sick people that were taken with divers diseases and torments, and such as were possessed by devils, and lunatics, and those that had the palsy, and he cured them: 25 And much people followed him from Galilee, and from Decapolis, and from Jerusalem, and from Judea, and from beyond the Jordan. 1 And seeing the multitudes, he went up into a mountain, and when he was set down, his disciples came unto him. 2 And opening his mouth he taught them, saying: 3 Blessed are the poor in spirit: for theirs is the kingdom of heaven. 4 Blessed are the meek: for they shall possess the land. 5 Blessed are they that mourn: for they shall be comforted. 6 Blessed are they that hunger and thirst after justice: for they shall have their fill. 7 Blessed are the merciful: for they shall obtain mercy. 8 Blessed are the clean of heart: they shall see God. 9 Blessed are the peacemakers: for they shall be called the children of God. 10 Blessed are they that suffer persecution for justice’ sake: for theirs is the kingdom of heaven. 11 Blessed are ye when they shall revile you, and persecute you, and speak all that is evil against you, untruly, for my sake: 12 Be glad and rejoice for your reward is very great in heaven. For so they persecuted the prophets that were before you. 13 You are the salt of the earth. But if the salt lose its savour, wherewith shall it be salted? It is good for nothing anymore but to be cast out, and to be trodden on by men. 14 You are the light of the world. A city seated on a mountain cannot be hid. 15 Neither do men light a candle and put it under a bushel, but upon a candlestick, that it may shine to all that are in the house. 16 So let your light shine before men, that they may see your good works, and glorify your Father who is in heaven. 17 Do not think that I am come to destroy the law, or the prophets. I am not come to destroy, but to fulfil. 18 For amen I say unto you, till heaven and earth pass, one jot, or one tittle shall not pass of the law, till all be fulfilled. 19 He therefore that shall break one of these least commandments, and shall so teach men shall be called the least in the kingdom of heaven. But he that shall do and teach, he shall be called great in the kingdom of heaven. 20 For I tell you, that unless your justice abound more than that of the scribes and Pharisees, you shall not enter into the kingdom of heaven. 21 You have heard that it was said to them of old: Thou shalt not kill. And whosoever shall kill, shall be in danger of the judgment. 22 But I say to you, that whosoever is angry with his brother, shall be in danger of the judgment. And whosoever shall say to his brother, Raca, shall be in danger of the council. And whosoever shall say, Thou fool, shall be in danger of hell fire. 23 If therefore thou offer thy gift at the altar, and there thou remember that thy brother hath anything against thee; 24 Leave there thy offering before the altar, and go first to be reconciled to thy brother, and then coming thou shalt offer thy gift. 25 Be at agreement with thy adversary betimes, whilst thou art in the way with him: lest perhaps the adversary deliver thee to the judge, and the judge deliver thee to the officer, and thou be cast into prison. 26 Amen I say to thee, thou shalt not go out from thence till thou repay the last farthing. 27 You have heard that it was said to them of old: Thou shalt not commit adultery. 28 But I say to you, that whosoever shall look on a woman to lust after her, hath already committed adultery with her in his heart. 29 And if thy right eye scandalize thee, pluck it out and cast it from thee. For it is expedient for thee that one of thy members should perish, rather than thy whole body be cast into hell. 30 And if thy right hand scandalize thee, cut it off, and cast it from thee: for it is expedient for thee that one of thy members should perish, rather than that thy whole body go into hell. 31 And it hath been said, Whosoever shall put away his wife, let him give her a bill of divorce. 32 But I say to you, that whosoever shall put away his wife, excepting the cause of fornication, maketh her to commit adultery: and he that shall marry her that is put away, committeth adultery. 33 Again you have heard that it was said to them of old, thou shalt not forswear thyself: but thou shalt perform thy oaths to the Lord. 34 But I say to you not to swear at all, neither by heaven for it is the throne of God: 35 Nor by the earth, for it is his footstool: nor by Jerusalem, for it is the city of the great king: 36 Neither shalt thou swear by thy head, because thou canst not make one hair white or black. 37 But let your speech be yea, yea: no, no: and that which is over and above these, is of evil. 38 You have heard that it hath been said: An eye for an eye, and a tooth for a tooth. 39 But I say to you not to resist evil: but if one strike thee on thy right cheek, turn to him also the other: 40 And if a man will contend with thee in judgment, and take away thy coat, let go thy cloak also unto him. 41 And whosoever will force thee one mile, go with him other two. 42 Give to him that asketh of thee, and from him that would borrow of thee turn not away. 43 You have heard that it hath been said, Thou shalt love thy neighbour, and hate thy enemy. 44 But I say to you, Love your enemies: do good to them that hate you: and pray for them that persecute and calumniate you: 45 That you may be the children of your Father who is in heaven, who maketh his sun to rise upon the good, and bad, and raineth upon the just and the unjust. 46 For if you love them that love you, what reward shall you have? do not even the publicans this? 47 And if you salute your brethren only, what do you more? do not also the heathens this? 48 Be you therefore perfect, as also your heavenly Father is perfect. 1 Take heed that you do not your justice before men, to be seen by them: otherwise you shall not have

PENANCE, SACRAMENT OF. The Latin word pœnitentia (from punire in an archaic form pœnire) means sorrow or regret, and answers to the Greek μετάνοια, change of mind or heart. As a theological term, penance is first the name of a virtue which inclines sinners to detest their sins because they are an offence against God. Then penance came to mean the outward acts by which sorrow for sin is shown, and the word was supposed by St. Augustine to come from “pœna” and by others, e.g. Peter Lombard, from “pœnam tenere.” The Greek word μετάνοια has wandered further still from its original sense, for in the Greek liturgies it means simply a prostration. Thus in the office for ordination of deacons the rubric runs, “The priest departs with the deacon and they make three bows (ποιοῦσι μετανοίας τρεῖς) to the icon of the Lord Christ.” (See Morinus, “De Pœn.” lib. i. cap. 1.) In a more restricted sense still, penance is used for the penitential discipline of the Church, or even for the third station of public penitents (so, e.g., I. Concil. Tolet. canon 2), and again for the satisfaction which the priest imposes on the penitent before absolving him from his sins. Lastly, penance is a sacrament of the new law instituted by Christ for the remission of sin committed after baptism.
So understood, penance is defined as a “sacrament instituted by Christ in the form of a judgment for the remission of sin done after baptism, this remission being effected by the absolution of the priest, joined to true supernatural sorrow, true purpose of amendment, and sincere confession on the part of the sinner.” The Council of Trent (Sess. xiv.) defines that priests have real power to remit and retain sins, that persons are bound by the law of God to confess before the priest each and every mortal sin committed after baptism, so far as the memory can recall it, and also such circumstances as change the nature of these sins, and that the sacrament of penance is absolutely necessary for the forgiveness of post-baptismal sin. It is true that perfect sorrow for sin which has offended so good a God, at once and without the addition of any external rite blots out the stain and restores the peace and love of God in the soul. “There is no condemnation to those who are in Christ Jesus, who walk not after the flesh, but after the spirit.” But this perfect sorrow involves in a well-instructed Catholic the intention of fulfilling Christ’s precept and receiving the sacrament of penance when opportunity occurs. This implicit desire of confession and absolution may exist in many Protestants who reject the Catholic doctrine on this point. They desire the sacrament of penance in this sufficient sense, that they earnestly wish to fulfil Christ’s law, so far as they can learn what it is. In this sense the sacrament is necessary for the salvation of those who have fallen into mortal sin after baptism. They must receive it actually or by desire, this desire being either explicit or implicit. This point is of capital importance for the apprehension of Catholic doctrine. We in no way deny that God is ready to forgive the sins of non-Catholics who are in good faith and who turn to Him with loving sorrow. But the High Church doctrine that confession of mortal sin is not an absolute duty imposed by the law of Christ, or that absolution is a benefit which the penitent is not absolutely bound to seek, is in the sharpest antagonism to the Catholic faith as defined at Trent. The Council also teaches that satisfaction must be made for the temporal punishment which may be due even to pardoned sin, and that confession, contrition, absolution and satisfaction, are the four parts of penance. The minister, and the only possible minister of the sacrament is a priest with ordinary or delegated power to absolve. The form consists in the words, “I absolve thee from thy sins,” &c. Mortal or venial sins (for it is of faith that venial sins may be confessed, though there is no obligation of doing so) supply the place of matter. The Council speaks of sins as the “quasi materia,” for though Thomists and many other theologians hold that sorrowful confession of sins is the proximate matter of the sacrament, Scotists maintain that absolution is both matter and form, and the Council abstained from interfering in this scholastic dispute. In the articles on CONFESSION, ABSOLUTION, &c., many details relating to this sacrament have been given, so that we may content ourselves here with an elucidation of the main principles.
1. Priests have received power from Christ to forgive sins in his name and according to his law—i.e. in the case of true repentance. God alone can remit sins, but He has been pleased to make the priest’s absolution the means by which his grace is conveyed. He said to his Apostles, “Receive the Holy Ghost; whosesoever sins ye remit, they are remitted (i.e. become remitted) unto them, and whosesoever sins ye retain, they have been retained” (i.e. continue to be retained before God, John 21:23). This wonderful power must have been intended for the successors of the Apostles, as well as for the Apostles themselves, for it is incredible that this means of pardon was conferred only for a short period of the Church’s life. While sin lasted, the stream of grace and mercy must continue to flow. History proves the correctness of this inference, for in all ages the power of absolution has been used and recognised. Thus Cyprian urges the sinner to repent “while confession may be made, while satisfaction and remission through the bishops (sacerdotes) are accepted before God.” (“De Laps.” 29; the remission included, no doubt, absolution from censures.) In this, says St. Chrysostom (“De Sacerdot.” iii. 5, 6), the priests of the Gospel excel those of the Jewish Church, that, whereas Jewish priests could merely declare a man clean of leprosy, the Christian priests “have received power,” not with regard to the leprosy of the body but “the impurity of the soul,” a power which consists not in declaring that the uncleanness is removed but in actually “removing it entirely” (ἀπαλλάττειν παντελῶς ἔλαβον ἐξουσίαν). He proves this sacerdotal power by an express appeal to the words in St. John, “Whose sins ye remit,” &c. So again the author of an ancient homily, printed among the works of St. Athanasius (Migne, “Patrol.” iv. p. 183. The Benedictines place it among the dubia, but say it is found “in ancient MSS.”), says, “If thy bonds are not loosed, entrust thyself to the disciples of Jesus. Those are to be found who can loose us, having received this power from the Saviour” (ἐξουσίαν ταύτην εἰληφότες παρὰ τοῦ Σωτῆρος), “whose sins ye remit,” &c. Morinus (lib. viii. cap. 1) quotes from Leo, Ep. 91, “Ad Theodor.”: “Very useful and necessary is it that the guilt of sin should be loosed before the last day by the judgment of the priest.” Augustine, Ep. 180, “Ad Honorat.” (apud Morin. ibidem), urges the clergy not to flee in persecution, because their presence will be urgently required for “the administration (confectionem) of the sacraments.” “If the ministers are wanting, what ruin will come on those who depart this life unregenerate [i.e. unbaptised] or bound. [i.e. unabsolved]!” The value of these testimonies lies partly in the fact that they do not argue for the priestly power of absolution, but assume it, partly in their connection with the strong utterances of Scripture on the one hand, the penitential discipline of the Church on the other. It must have required a strong belief in the power of absolution to make men undergo long years of rigorous penance in order to obtain it. It may be well here to answer two objections. Morinus (lib. viii. 8. 10, 11) has shown, and indeed demonstrated, that down to the twelfth century absolution was always given among the Latins in a precatory form. And it is evident from Goar and Renaudot (in the “Perpétuité de la Foi”) that the Greeks, the Jacobites, and Nestorians still preserve this precatory form. This, however, cannot fairly be alleged against our belief, that the priest exercises judgment in the sacrament of penance, and does really bind or loose. No one will deny that the bishop in absolving an excommunicate person and restoring him to Church communion exercised indicial power and authoritatively remitted ecclesiastical censures. Yet here, too, as well as in sacramental absolution, the form was precatory even as late as the time of Burchard, bishop of Worms, who lived at the close of the tenth century. (See the quotation in Chardon, “Hist. des Sacr.” tom. iv. §§ 4, 7.) Further, it may be said, that absolution was sometimes given by a deacon, and Cyprian (Ep. xviii.), writing in the summer of 250, does certainly require the lapsed in danger of death to make confession (exomologesis) and receive imposition of hands from a deacon, if a presbyter cannot be found. But it is clear that he is speaking of absolution from censures, and indulgence granted through the intercession of the martyrs, and the distinctions already made in the article on ABSOLUTION are sufficient to meet this difficulty.
2. Absolution is invalid unless given by a priest with ordinary or delegated jurisdiction over the penitent. This follows from the fact, attested by Scripture, that the priest in penance exercises judgment. A magistrate cannot bind or loose a man charged with theft, unless the law subjects that man to his authority, or unless he has received special power from the state to try the case. The tribunals of the Church are not less carefully regulated than those of the State, since God is a God of order and not of confusion. The fundamental power to absolve is given at ordination, but its exercise depends absolutely on ecclesiastical authority. In earliest times absolution was given by the bishop alone, or by the bishop in union with the presbyters. After the rise of the Novatian heresy, the office of penitentiary priest was instituted. Later, parishes were established first in the large towns and then in the country, and from that time the accepted principle approved by the Fourth Lateran Council was, that parishioners were bound to confess to their own priest or to another priest with his permission. Chardon reports a case from the twelfth century in which St. Ailert, monk of the abbey of Crespin in Hainaut, received power from Paschal II. and Innocent II. to hear the confessions of all who came to him. In 1227, Gregory IX. gave the Dominicans authority to hear confessions everywhere, and the same privileges, which led to bitter opposition, lasting for centuries, on the part of the seculars, were extended to the other mendicant friars and confirmed by many Popes. They were limited by the Council of Trent, as has been shown in the articles on ABSOLUTION and CONFESSION. (See Chardon, tom. iii. § 8, ch. 2.) In all these disputes, the principle that absolution could only be given by a priest with jurisdiction was fully acknowledged, for the mendicants had of course jurisdiction, though it was extraordinary—i.e. not attached to their office but directly conferred by the Pope. The Orientals also regard absolution as a judicial act, and do not dream that it can be given by any priest. Confession, according to an Oriental document, probably Coptic (cited by Denzinger, “Rit. Orient.” tom. i. p. 100), “cannot be made save to a priest, whether secular or religious, &c., who must have received this authority from the Patriarch or from his own bishop, with the consent of the clergy and chiefs of the people.”
3. The necessity of confessing all mortal sins after baptism also follows from the very nature of the absolving power. Christ gave his Apostles authority to bind and loose, but they cannot exercise this discretion till the sins, as they are in the conscience of the penitent, have been submitted to their judgment. It is only in the case of mortal sins that this necessity arises, though, as a rule, it is expedient to confess venial sins likewise, for venial sin does not bind the soul over to evil and destroy the grace of God within it, or exclude absolutely from the kingdom of heaven, so that here there can be no strict necessity for absolution. It is needless to prove that certain mortal sins of a very aggravated character had to be confessed in the primitive Church, for this no instructed person will deny, and the writer of the article on Penitence in the “Dictionary of Christian Antiquities,” edited by Smith and Cheetham, admits that this confession of the three “mortalia peccata” was obligatory, even if the sin had been secret. Possibly St. James may be alluding to the public confession when he says, “Confess your sins one to another;” for, as Döllinger (“First Age of the Church,” p. 325) points out, this confession is mentioned in immediate connection with extreme unction. “ ‘Confess to one another’ refers to the priests called in to anoint the sick man and to pray for him, and to whom he is to confess his sins.” Whatever may be thought of this interpretation, we have early evidence that confession much more extensive than that of the three great mortal sins (viz. murder, idolatry, and adultery) was known to the early Church. Origen (Hom. in Ps. xxxvii. n. 6) thus exhorts the sinner: “Look round diligently for one to whom you should confess your sins.” He is to find a physician “learned and merciful” who will judge if his sickness is of such a nature that “it ought to be exposed in the meeting of the whole church;” and again (Hom. in Luc. xvii.), “if we reveal our sins not only to God but also to those who can heal our sins and wounds, our sins will be blotted out by Him who says, ‘Behold, I will blot out like a cloud,’ ” &c. Basil’s words are express. “It is necessary to confess our sins to those who are entrusted with the dispensation of the mysteries of God” (ἀναγκαῖον τοῖς πεπιστευμένοις τὴν οἰκονομίαν τῶν μυστηρίων τοῦ Θεοῦ τὰ ἁμαρτήματα ἐξομολογεῖσθαι. “Reg. Brev. Tract. Respons. in Interr.” 288). Further, what followed on the cessation of public penance is well worth consideration. This, in the case of secret sins, came to an end in the Church of Constantinople soon after the abolition of the presbyter ἐπὶ τῆς μετανοίας, or penitentiary, at the close of the fourth century. It came to an end because it was of human institution. But sacramental confession, being of divine origin, lasted when the penitential discipline had been changed, and continues to this day among the Greeks and Oriental sects. So again Leo, in a letter to the Bishops of Campania (Ep. clxviii., ed. Ballerini), desired the abrogation of public penance because of its deterrent effect, and because it was not of Apostolic institution; but he adds, “since it is enough that the guilt of consciences should be manifested to the priests alone by secret confession.” An opinion, however, did prevail to some extent in the middle ages, even among Catholics, that confession to God alone sufficed. The Council of Châlons in 813 (canon 33) says: “Some assert that we should confess our sins to God alone, but some think (percensent) that they should be confessed to the priests, each of which practices is followed not without great fruit in Holy Church.… Confession made to God purges sins, but that made to the priest teaches how they are to be purged.” This former opinion is also mentioned without reprobation by Peter Lombard (“In Sentent. Lib. IV.” dist. 17). St. Thomas, in his commentary on the Sentences, says that what had once been a mere opinion was, in his time, on account of the decision of the Church, under Innocent III., to be accounted heresy, and (“Suppl.” qu. vi. a. 3) he maintains that the necessity of confessing mortal sins after baptism exists by divine, and not merely by church, law.
4. We say nothing here of the sorrow for sin and purpose of amendment requisite in the sacrament, referring the reader for an explanation of this point to the article on CONTRITION, and we pass to satisfaction, which is the fourth and last part of penance. It is defined by Billuart (“Pœn.” diss. ix. 1) as “a payment of the temporal punishment due to sin through works which are good and penal and are imposed by the confessor.”
“Catholics,” says Bossuet (“Expos. de la Foi Cath.” viii.), “teach unanimously that only Jesus Christ, who is both God and man, was capable, through the infinite dignity of his person, of offering to God sufficient satisfaction for our sins. But, having satisfied superabundantly, He was able to apply this satisfaction in two ways, either by granting entire remission without letting any penalty remain, or, on the other hand, by commuting a greater into a lesser penalty—i.e. eternal into temporal punishment. As that former fashion is more complete and in better harmony with his goodness, He employs it in baptism; but we believe that He employs the second way in the case of those who fall back into sin after baptism, being, as it were, constrained to do so by the ingratitude of those who have abused his first gifts so that they have to suffer some punishment, although the eternal one is remitted. From this we must not infer that Jesus Christ has failed to make entire satisfaction for us; but, on the contrary, that, having acquired an absolute right over us by the infinite price He has offered for our salvation, He grants us pardon on the conditions, under the laws, and with the reserves which seem good to Him.” He proceeds to argue that Protestants, who allege that Christ could not have satisfied fully for actual sin, if He left us subject to temporal punishment, might as well say that Christ has not satisfied for original sin because He has left us subject to death and to other infirmities of the soul and body which are consequences of the Fall. “Similarly, we should not marvel that He who showed Himself so merciful to us in baptism should display greater severity when once we have broken our holy promises. It is just, nay, it is for our own good, that He, when He remits [the guilt of] sin along with the eternal punishment, should exact some temporal punishment from us in order to bind us to duty.”
Scripture proves that God inflicts temporal punishment for pardoned sin, for Nathan said to David after he had acknowledged his double crime, “The Lord also has caused thy sin to pass away; thou shalt not die. Only because thou hast so made the enemies of the Lord to blaspheme through this matter, even the son that is born to thee shall surely die,” (2 Reg. or Sam. 12:14), Dan. 4:27 (so Heb. LXX and Vulg. “Authorised,” 4:27) is the classical passage for the doctrine that man has the power of making satisfaction for sin by good works. “Therefore, O king, let my counsel please thee, and redeem thy sins by justice, and thy perversities by showing kindness to the poor.” Here, as in all other articles on dogma, we have given a literal translation from the original, and our version of this text is justified, while that of the “Authorised Version” (“break off”) is excluded, both by the laws of the language and by the judgment of the best Protestant and Jewish scholars. We append our reasons in a note. The Penitential discipline of the early Church witnesses to the belief that satisfaction by penitential works is necessary in itself, and is required as a part of the sacrament of penance. Nor did the early Christians consider satisfaction merely as means of deepening repentance, repairing scandal, and awakening salutary sorrow. Cyprian (“De Laps.” 35, 36) exhorts the lapsed “to be forward in good works by which sins are purged, to give frequent alms by which souls are freed from death,” “to induce the Lord to pardon sin by perseverance in good works.” Calvin himself acknowledges that all Christian antiquity admitted the necessity of penitential satisfaction. “I am little moved,” he writes, “by passages which everywhere occur in the writings of the ancients concerning satisfaction. I see that some of them, I will say frankly nearly all whose works are extant, went wrong in this matter, or spoke too severely and harshly.” (“Instit.” iii. cap. 4, § 38, quoted by Billuart.)
It is to be noted, however, that satisfaction is in theological language an integral but not an essential part of the Sacrament. In other words, the priest, both as judge and physician of the soul, is bound to impose a penance; and the penitent, if it is reasonable, is bound to accept it. Even if the penance is unreasonable, he must seek another penance and absolution from another priest. But whereas true supernatural sorrow with purpose of amendment, absolution, and, according to the common opinion, some outward confession of sin by word or sign, are always and in all circumstances necessary for the validity of the Sacrament, still, in the case, e.g., of a man in his agony, the priest may give absolution without imposing a penance. (Billuart, Diss. ix. a. 2.) In the ancient Church part at least of the penance was usually performed before absolution; at present the priest in most cases imposes the penance, and, if he judges that the penitent is well disposed, gives absolution. The difference is one of discipline and not of principle, for, with the exception given above, absolution is not given even now unless there is the resolution on the part of the sinner to perform the penance imposed upon him.
Many Protestant objections to the sacrament of penance, as administered among us, arise from misunderstanding. Confession to the priest tends to deepen and not to replace shame and sorrow for the offence done to God. It protects the sinner against self-delusion—for no man is a good judge in his own cause—and the priest is able to insist upon the duty of restoring ill-gotten goods, reconciliation with enemies, forgiveness of injuries, avoiding occasions of sins, retracting calumny, &c., in many cases when the sinner might be blinded by his own passions or interests. At the same time the priest affords the best protection against despair or indiscreet zeal. There is little in the laborious work of the confessional to satisfy curiosity, for the priest learns nothing except the number and species of sins committed, and he is bound under the most sacred obligations to abstain from all unnecessary questions, particularly from all such as might convey knowledge of sins previously unknown to the penitent. He has to decide according to the principles of an elaborate casuistry which he has studied for years, and in which he has been examined by his superiors, before he enters the confessional. There is little room for tyranny on his part, for the faithful know well that they may have recourse to any approved confessor. Here, as elsewhere, holy things may be profaned. But the Church deprives a priest of the power to absolve an accomplice, rigorously punishing any attempt to do so; and were a priest so miserable as to abuse the confessional for bad ends, then the person to whom he had spoken wrongly could not be absolved even by another priest till he or she had communicated the name of the criminous clerk to the bishop of the diocese. Such cases are necessarily of very rare occurrence; for sin of this kind would involve almost inevitable ruin to the priest. Of all pastoral ministrations we firmly believe there is none which involves a more self-denying devotion to a monotonous duty, none where the good effects are so plain and visible, and very few which are more seldom marred by human weakness and sin.
(The work of Morinus is a storehouse of learning. Much historical information will be found in Chardon’s “Hist. des Sacr.” The writer of this article only knows Denys de Ste. Marthe, “Traité de la Confession,” Paris, 1685, by Chardon’s quotations.)
PENITENTIAL DISCIPLINE AND BOOKS. The right of punishing members for offences against its laws and depriving them altogether or for a time of its privileges, belongs to any well-constituted society. It was exercised by the Synagogue (Luc. 16:2; John 6:2); Christ sanctioned the use of it in his Church (Matt. 18:15–17); and in 1 Cor. 5:1–5 we see St. Paul enforcing the penitential law of the Church against a notorious offender. Of course, this penitential discipline in the Christian Church, though analogous to the procedure of human societies, claims a higher origin and is of a much more serious nature. The power of inflicting spiritual penalties has been put into the hands of the Church by Christ Himself; it is exercised in his name; it may involve deprivation of the sacraments, which are the great appointed means of grace; and, on the other hand, it is the object of penitential discipline, not only to preserve the holiness of the Church, but also to awaken wholesome fear and sorrow in the heart of the offender while there is yet time, “that his soul may be saved in the day of the Lord.” Obviously, the Church must use this power in the way most likely at the time to benefit souls, and her penitential canons have varied much at different periods and in different places. Still, on the whole, it is possible to distinguish three distinct periods in the history of penance—the first extending from the beginning of the Church to the rise of the Novatian heresy in the middle of the third century (Morinus, lib. iv.), the second reaching to about the year 700 after Christ (ib. lib. vi.), the third to the eleventh century (ib. lib. vii.). Of these periods, the first represents penitential discipline in its initial stage; the second, in its full development and vigour; the third, in its decay. Most of what we have to say is taken from the great work of Morinus, “De Disciplina in Administratione Sacramenti Pœnitentiæ,” in the Venetian edition of 1702.
First Period.—The sins for which public, penance was inflicted, were the three “mortal crimes” (crimina mortalia, Cyprian, “De Bono Patient.” c. 14) of idolatry, murder, and adultery, committed after baptism. Tertullian adds “fraud” to the list of “graver and fatal crimes which cannot be forgiven” (“Pudic.” 19); but, generally speaking, it was only the various forms of the three great sins which reduced a man to the rank of a penitent. Tertullian (“De Pœnit.” c. 9) has left us a vivid picture of penance as he was accustomed to see it practised. He describes penance, which was generally known, even among the Latins, as “exomologesis,” because it involved open confession of sins, as a “discipline by which a man was prostrated and humiliated.” He speaks of the penitents as lying on sackcloth and ashes, of the unwashed body, the feeding on bread and water, the fasting and prayer, the grovelling at the feet of the presbyters and others who had a name for sanctity, the groans and tears. As yet there was no formal division of penitents into grades, and penance, though severe, did not always last long. The Apostolic Constitutions (ii. 16), in a passage which may be fairly taken as a picture of the penitential discipline in the first period, orders a great sinner to be excluded altogether from the Church; then the deacons are to admonish him and introduce him to the congregation; then penance is to be inflicted (στιβώσας αὐτὸν) “in proportion to his sin, for two, three, five, or seven weeks,” at the end of which period the bishop is to receive him into communion, with imposition of hands (ib. 18. χειροθετήσας αὐτὸν ἔα λοιπὸν εἶναι ἐν τῷ ποιμνίῳ), accompanied by the prayers of the faithful. Here we see the germs of the later and more formal system, though the penalty contemplated is slight. Cyprian (Ep. lvii.) announces his intention of admitting to communion those who had fallen into idolatry in a former persecution and had done penance since. His reason for this indulgence was that fresh persecution was at hand.
But while penance was comparatively light, admission to it was often hard to obtain. For in this early period penance was looked on rather as a grace shown to sinners than as a penalty which they had to bear. It was in the difficulty of being admitted to penance, not in the penance itself, that the severity of the early Church appears. For a brief period, even the Roman Church refused absolution utterly and altogether in the case of the three “mortal crimes.” This absolution was granted till the middle of the second century (“Pastor Herm.” Mandat. iv. 1), but it must have been withdrawn, probably shortly after the “Shepherd” of Hermas was written (this is evident from the first chapter of Tertullian, “De Pudic.” Compare also the words of Hermas, loc. cit., “Servis Dei pœnitentia una est,” with Visio, ii. 2, where it is said that soon the opportunity of performing penance will expire). Zephyrinus (202–219) relaxed this severity in the case of adulterers (see the “De Pudic.”), and his successor, Callixtus (219–222), admitted all sinners to communion after penance (“Philosophum.” ix. 12), and this milder discipline became established. (See the “Epistle of the Roman Clergy,” Cyprian, Ep. 30.) In Africa, too, the discipline had become milder, for Cyprian (Ep. lv. No. 21) mentions the opinion of bishops in his province that “peace was not to be granted to adulterers” as a thing of the past. The Spanish church continued to be more severe, for even after our period the Synod of Elvira, in 306, excluded great sinners from all hope of communion (see, e.g. canons 1, 6, 8). Moreover, in no part of the Church was communion given to those who had fallen a second time after baptism into mortal crime. It was Pope Siricius (Ep. 1, “Ad Himer.” c. 5), towards the close of the fourth century, who insisted on a more indulgent course. So, again, it was the ordinary practice to refuse communion to the dying, if they had been previously excommunicated and had not done penance in health. We must remember, however, that sacramental absolution from guilt, canonical absolution from penitential discipline, censures, &c., and giving communion, are three distinct things, and the refusal of the first does not follow from that of the second or third. Hefele (“Concil.” i. p. 155) and Frank (“Bussdisciplin,” &c., 1867) believe that though canonical absolution and communion often were, sacramental absolution never was, refused to any sinner.
Second Period.—After the rise of the Novatian heresy, the penitential system was fully organised. The Nicene Council, can. 13, established the principle that communion was to be given in the hour of death to penitents, however great their previous crime. We have seen that Pope Siricius extended this lenity even to relapsed penitents. St. Chrysostom, it is said (Socrates, “H. E.” vi. 21), received penitents again and again, however frequent their relapses, and the Third Council of Toledo, in 589, speaks in canon 11 of a lax practice which permitted men to sin as often as they pleased, and present themselves anew to the priest for reconciliation. (See Hefele’s note, “Concil.” iii. p. 51.)
On the other hand, the list of “mortal offences” was enlarged. We find traces of such increase in the list of sins which subjected to penance, in the canons ascribed to Gregory of Nyssa and Basil. “Many Fathers,” says Morinus (lib. v. cap. v.), “who wrote after Augustine’s time, extended this [the necessity of public penance] to all crimes which the civil law punished with death, exile, or other grave corporal penalty”; and he proves this by many quotations—e.g. from Popes Pelagius 11. and Gregory I. Further, in the East certain grades of penance came to be recognised. The three higher grades are mentioned or alluded to in the canonical epistle of Gregory Thaumaturgus (can. 1, 8, 9, on the last, in which the grade of συστάντες, or consistentes is alluded to but not mentioned by name, see the extract from the commentary of Zonaras in Routh, “Rell. Sacr.” tom. iii. p. 279). The eleventh canon, which enumerates all four grades, is certainly spurious, and is much later than Gregory’s time. (See Routh, loc. cit. p. 281.) Still, from the fourth century onwards, the Eastern Church divided penitents into four classes. They are thus described in the eleventh canon of Gregory in words which are quite accurate, and were probably added as a gloss to the authentic canons. “Weeping” (the προσκλαίοντες, or flentes, were the lowest class) “takes place outside the door of the church, where the sinner must stand and beg the prayers of the faithful as they go in. Hearing” (the ἀκροώμενοι, or audientes, were the second class) “is performed within the gate in the porch, where the sinner must stand while the catechumens are present, and then go out. For, hearing the Scripture,” he says, “and the instruction, let him be expelled, and not be admitted to the prayer. Prostration” (the state of the ὑποπίπτοντες, substrati, the third class) “requires the sinner to stand within the church door, and to go out with the catechumens.” (Before going, they prostrated themselves to receive the imposition of the bishop’s hands with prayer, hence their name.) The consistentes (the last class—συστάντες, consistentes) “stand together with the faithful, and do not go out with the catechumens. Last comes participation in the sacraments (ἁγιασμάτων).” The two lower grades were little known in the West, and the Latin Fathers generally mean by “penitents” the substrati, or ὑποπίπτοντες. A severe course of life—fasts, shaving of the head, wearing a peculiar dress, abstinence from the enjoyment, and even sometimes from the business of life, were the hardships which penitents (under which term we do not include the consistentes) had to undergo. The penance lasted long years—e.g. the Canons of Basil, which represent the discipline of the whole East, impose fifteen years of penance for adultery, seven for fornication. Many canons of Councils speak of clerics as subjected to penance (e.g. Neocæs. can. 1; Illib. 76; I. Araus. 4; I. Arel. 29); but sometimes the degradation of a cleric was considered equivalent to the penance of a layman, and it was felt to be unfair that he should incur a double penalty for one crime. (So, e.g. Can. Apost. 25; and the letter of Pope Siricius to Himcrius, “Pœnitentiam agere cuiquam non conceditur clericorum.” Mansi, “Concil.” tom. iii. col. 660.) With regard to the sick and dying, the rule varied at different times and in different churches. Cyprian (Ep. lv. 23) lays down the principle that great and notorious offenders, who had done no penance before their sickness, “were to be excluded entirely (omnino prohibendos) from the hope of communion and peace.” The Synod of Arles (anno 314), which represented the whole of the Western Church, also debarred death-bed penitents from communion (can. 22); but the Council of Nicæa (can. 13) relaxed this stringent rule. Still less was communion refused to secret sinners who sought penance on their death-beds, or to such as were actually doing penance when sickness overtook them. After the organisation of the grades or stations of penance, a penitent who had received communion in dangerous sickness was usually sent back to do penance in case of recovery. Sometimes he returned to the grade in which he had been before; sometimes he was placed among the consistentes.
Third Period, from the Seventh till the Eleventh Century.—Before this time the laws of public penance had been altered very seriously in the East. The office of penitentiary had been abolished at the close of the fourth century at Constantinople (Socrates, “H. E.” vii. 16; Sozomen “H. E.” v. 19), and this led to the cessation of public confession and public penance for secret sins. The stations of penance are mentioned at the end of the seventh century in canon 87 of the Council in Trullo. But the Greek liturgies, except perhaps that of St. James and one used by the Abyssinians, contain no reference to the dismissal of penitents from the assembly of the faithful. About the beginning of the seventh century, as Morinus (lib. vii. 1) proves by citations from Bede, Egbert, Rabanus Maurus, &c., it was received as an axiom throughout the West that public penance was to be done only for public sins.
It must not be supposed, however, that the rigour of public penance had abated among the Latins. True, even public penitents no longer received the daily imposition of the bishop’s hands, and they were no longer shut out from the very sight of the sacred mysteries. But all through this period a vast number of persons were to be seen in the churches “distinguished from [the rest of] the faithful by their dress, place [in the church], mourning, and whole manner of life” (Morinus, vii. 2). Some of them witnessed Mass at a distance from a spot inside the church; others took their place in a separate part of the church; a third class mixed with the rest of the congregation, but were forbidden to communicate (ib. 7). The bishop prescribed this penance, and the civil law compelled the offender to undergo it. Very often a man was forced to appear as a public penitent, though for one reason or other he had not been condemned or even tried by the civil court. It was enough if the ecclesiastical authorities had juridical proof of his guilt. In the early part of this period, the beginning of Lent, the “caput jejunii,” as it was called, was looked on as the most fitting, though not the only time, for the solemn imposition of public penance (ib. vii. 19). Nor was private penance less severe. It differed from public penance only inasmuch as it could be imposed by a priest, whereas public penance was inflicted by the bishop or a priest specially empowered by him, and inasmuch as the solemn rites of public were omitted in private penance. The same long fasts and other austerities, the same long abstinence from communion, were the penalties of secret sin. Every priest who heard confession was bound to use a “penitential book”—i.e. a book which contained the penalties attached to particular sins by the canons, Popes, Fathers, or custom, along with the forms to be observed in confession, absolution, and the rest. The Roman Penitential, and those of Theodore, archbishop of Canterbury, and Bede, were those which had the highest repute in the West, but there were many others. These books were the guides of confessors down to the thirteenth century. A glance at the “Summary of Penitentials” given in Zaccaria’s essay prefixed to the “Moral Theology” of St. Liguori will easily convince the reader of the severity which then prevailed. From the latter part of the tenth century flogging was added to the other penitential exercises, and at an earlier part of our period exile (mentioned in the Penitentials of Bede and in that known as the Roman) and perpetual retirement to a monastery were imposed as penances.
Fourth Period, Twelfth and Thirteenth Centuries (Morinus, lib. x. cap. 16 seq).—During this period the rigour of penance was greatly relaxed; public penance, except in certain cases, especially in that of heresy, almost disappeared, and on the whole we may note a transition to modern practice. The following were the chief causes of the change:—
(α) The Redemption of Sins.—Long before this time the practice had arisen of procuring exemption from canonical penance by giving alms, &c. This custom, indeed, is mentioned and condemned by an English council held in 747, and it was generally recognised in the ninth century. But such redemptions were at first partial, and only allowed when part of the penance had been done. This accorded with the spirit of the primitive Church, which remitted part of the penance to sinners who showed extraordinary sorrow and zeal. But from the end of the tenth or opening of the eleventh century penances due to sins were arithmetically computed—i.e. if seven years of penance were assigned for committing a sin once, twenty-one years were reckoned as the penalty due for committing it three times, and large alms, flagellation, recitations of the Psalter, were accepted as redemption of penance. Thus St. Peter Damian tells the story of a man who by cruel flagellation and frequent recitations of the Psalter accomplished a hundred years of penance in six days. The arithmetical computation of penance had made its performance in the old way impossible.
(β) Remissions of penance were freely granted for works of piety—e.g. contributions to aid in the building of churches, or even works of public utility, such as building bridges or the like. As a rule, those indulgences were partial, but a complete remission of penance was often obtained by performing several good works. Maurice, who succeeded Peter Lombard in the see of Paris, built his great cathedral and four abbeys by means of indulgences. It is right to add that the Fourth Lateran Council protested against the reckless freedom with which these indulgences were given.
(γ) The Crusades did more than anything else to relax penitential rigour, and this, in the opinion of Fleury, was the most important effect they produced. As early as 1087 Pope Victor II. offered a general remission of penance to those who took up arms against the Saracens of Africa, alter they had spoiled the abbey of Monte Cassino. In 1095 Urban II. offered the same reward to those who joined in the crusade. Secret, as well as public, sinners availed themselves of the opportunity; and when for two hundred years penance had been remitted to vast multitudes who took part directly or indirectly in these wars, it became out of the question to think of restoring the ancient rigour. It is curious to observe that bearing arms was just one of the things which penitents in ancient times were strictly forbidden to do. But it was supposed that the prohibition only applied to war between Christians.
(δ) The Scholastics developed the opinion that absolution might be granted before the performance of penance, that the canonical penalties were arbitrary, or in any case might be remitted by the confessor, and not merely, as in former days, by the bishop.
(ε) The mendicant, friars, who were constantly passing from place to place, became the favourite confessors, and it was impossible for them to defer absolution and stay to watch the progress of the penitent.
The Pontifical still contains an office for the expulsion of penitents from the church by the bishop on Ash Wednesday. The penitents are to approach in penitential garb, bare feet, &c.; ashes are to be placed on their heads, and the doors of the church shut against them till Holy Thursday. Such public ignominy is to be inflicted only for enormous crimes, and by the authority of the bishop, penitentiary, or other official to whom the power has been delegated. The Council of Trent, however (sess. xxiv. cap. 8), desires that public (but not solemn) penance be inflicted on public sinners, unless the bishop judge it to be inexpedient. St. Charles enforced this rule in his synods. But solemn or even public penance is now scarcely known. Still, in an English book published at Douay as late as 1743 with ecclesiastical approbation (“The Good Confessor,” &c., by Samuel Marley, D.D., p. 522 seq.), the imposition of public penance for public sin is strictly enjoined upon the confessor. It is suggested, e.g., that the penitent kneel at the church door during the chief Mass, with a light in his hands, and beg pardon of the congregation. Drunkenness is given as an example of a sin which should be expiated in this way. It is evident from the whole chapter that penances of this kind were still frequently imposed. (Morinus is the great authority on the subject. Chardon, “Hist. des Sacr.” tom. iii. iv., gives a clear and useful summary of the facts. A much shorter but very interesting summary will be found in Fleury, Discours iv. and vi. The writer has also read the articles in Kraus, “Real-Encycl.,” and in Smith and Cheetham, but without finding much that had not already been given by Morinus. The work of Wässerschleben, “Bussordnungen der abendländischen Kirche,” Halle, 1851, is only known to him from the references in Smith and Cheetham.)
PENITENTIAL PSALMS. A name given to seven psalms, which express sorrow for sin and desire of pardon. The psalms are 6, 31, 37, 50, 101, 129, 142 (in the Latin numeration). Innocent III. ordered their recitation in Lent; Pius V. fixed the Fridays in Lent after lauds as the time at which they should be said, but they are not said on Good Friday or on a feast of nine lessons. There is no obligation of saying them in the private recitation of the Breviary, though those who do so may gain an indulgence of fifty days. The name and arrangement of the Penitential Psalms is very ancient. Possidius tells us that St. Augustine, when dying, caused the penitential psalms, which are few in number, to be fixed on the wall opposite his bed. Probably our penitential psalms are meant. Cassiodorus (d. 565) gives a mystical reason for the number seven—viz. that sin is remitted by baptism, martyrdom, alms, forgiving others, converting others, abundance of charity, and penance. They are also mentioned in the oldest Roman Ordines (Gavantus, tom. ii. § ix. cap. 4). The antiphon “Ne reminiscaris” from Tobias iii. 3, now attached to these psalms in the Roman Breviary, seems to have been added in the sixteenth century. (Maskell, “Monumenta Rit.” vol. iii. p. 82.)
PENSIONS. At the Council of Chalcedon, Maximus, who had a short time before been substituted for Domnus as bishop of Antioch, requested the sanction of the Fathers to his assigning a pension out of the revenues of the see sufficient for the support of Domnus. The legates of Pope Leo, the other patriarchs, the entire synod, and the imperial judges assented to the request in principle, leaving it to Maximus to arrange the details according to his judgment of what was necessary.
Gregory the Great used to send clerks convicted of incontinence to various monasteries for penance, but required that the churches to which they belonged should supply them with adequate pensions, so that they should not be a burden on the monasteries.
An ecclesiastical pension is not canonical or permitted except under the following conditions: 1. The receiver must be an ecclesiastic, free from censure and Irregularity; 2. The pension must be founded on a just cause; 3. He who creates the pension must have the faculty to do so, and such faculties are granted by the Pope, and may be, as some theologians think, by the bishops also; 4. The enjoyment of the pension ceases with the natural or civil death of the pensioner. (Thomassin, “Vet. et Nova Eccl. Disc.” iii. 2, 29–31); Moroni, Pensione Ecclesiastica.)
PENTECOST. The feast of Weeks (חַג שְׁבֻעוֹת) was one of the three great feasts of the Jewish law. It was the feast of the in-gathered harvest, and the later Jews regarded it as a solemn commemoration of the Mosaic legislation in the third month (Exod. 19:1); but there is no trace of such a view in the Bible or even in Josephus and Philo. It was kept on the fiftieth day after the first day of the Passover, Nisan 16, the second day of the Paschal feast, being reckoned as the first of the fifty days (Lev. 23:15, 16; cf. Ew. “Altherthüm,” p. 399 seq.). Hence the Greek name πεντηκοστὴ, originally an adjective with ἡμέρα understood and then treated as an independent substantive (ἐν τῇ πεντηκοστῇ ἑορτῇ ἥ ἐστιν ἁγία ἑπτὰ ἑβδομάδων, Tob. 2:1. There is nothing answering to this in the Chaldee or Hebrew versions as given by Neubauer, or in the Vulgate; but Sabatier’s “Itala” has “in Pentecosten festo nostro qui est sanctus a septem annis”). To Christians the day became specially sacred, for on it at the third hour (i.e. about nine o’clock) the Holy Ghost descended miraculously on the Apostles. The ancient tradition that this Pentecost fell on a Sunday is confirmed by John 18:28, for if the Friday on which Christ died was the eve of the Passover, i.e. Nisan 14, then the 16th, the first of the fifty days, and the fiftieth day itself must both have been Sundays.
Pentecost was kept as a Christian festival from very early times. The Word was used both for Whitsunday and for the whole period of fifty days after Easter. Irenæus in a lost work on the Pasch is said to have mentioned the custom of praying erect during this season (see the work falsely attributed to Justin Martyr, “Quæst. et Respons.” 115, tom. iii. P. 2, p. 180, in Otto’s edition); and Origen, the “Apostolic Constitutions” (v. 20), as well as the Council of Elvira (anno 306, can. 43), speak of the feast on the day itself. There was no fasting during the whole period, for even the fast on the vigil was not known in the early Church; indeed, Quesnel thinks the custom in the Roman Church is not older than the twelfth century, though Meratus and Benedict XIV. (“De Festis,” 515) believe its introduction must be placed much earlier. The Vigil of Pentecost was one of the two days on which solemn baptism was conferred, and hence the Missal still gives a form for the blessing of the font on that day. Benedict XIV. also mentions as customs which prevailed in some places, the blessing of the candle, for which a form is given by Martene (“De Antiq. Ecclesiæ Rit,”), the blowing of trumpets at the Veni, Sancte Spiritus, in the Mass of Whitsunday, the discharge of fire from the roof, the letting doves loose in the church, and the scattering of roses. The Sundays which follow till Advent are dated from Pentecost in the Roman Calendar.
PERSECUTIONS (during the first six centuries). An exhaustive essay, “Christenverfolgungen,” &c. on this subject has lately appeared in the “Real-Encyklopädie of Christian Antiquities,” edited by Dr. Kraus. The limits of the present work permit us only to give a brief general outline of the principal facts.
During the first century Christianity was to a great extent confounded with Judaism in the eyes of the Roman officials, and since the latter was a religio licita, the former shared the same privilege. The persecutions under Nero and Domitian were local and occasional; no systematic design of extirpating Christianity dictated them. Gradually, partly because the Jews took pains to sever their cause from that of the Christians, partly because, in proportion as Christianity was better understood, the universality of its claim on human thought and conduct, and its essential incompatibility with pagan ideas, came out into stronger relief, the antagonism grew sharper, and the purpose of repression more settled Charges, various in their nature, were brought against the Christians; they were treasonable men (majestatis rei) who denied to the emperors a portion of their attributes and dignity; they were atheists, who so far from honouring the gods of the empire declared that they were devils; they were dealers in magic; lastly, they practised a foreign and unlawful religion (religio peregrina illicita). Possessed by such conceptions, a high Roman official, especially if he were a man of arbitrary or brutal character, or if Christians were indiscreet, could not lack pretext in abundance for persecution, even before any general edict of proscription had appeared. The rescript of Trajan (98–117) directed the policy of the government for a hundred years. “Search,” he said, “is not to be made for Christians; if they are arrested and accused before the tribunals, then if any one of them denies that he is a Christian, and proves it by offering sacrifice to our gods, he is to be pardoned.” The implication was, of course, that those who avowed their Christianity and refused to sacrifice were to be executed, as the adherents of an unlawful religion. All through the second century, the popular sentiment, whenever a Christian was put on his trial, raged against the accused; the mob, still for the most part pagan, believed every wild and monstrous calumny that was afloat against the sect. “If the Tiber overflows,” says Tertullian, “if the Nile does not overflow, if there is a drought, an earthquake, a scarcity, or a pestilence, straightway the people cry, ‘The Christians to the lions.’ ” This popular aversion is noticed in the reports of the persecution in Asia Minor, in which St. Polycarp suffered (probably about 155, under Antoninus Pius), and of the terrible slaughter of Christians at Lyons and Vienne under Marcus Aurelius. In 202 Severus issued a formal edict forbidding conversions either to the Jewish or the Christian religion under heavy penalties. The persecution which ensued lasted ten or eleven years; but from about 212 to the reign of Decius (249–251) was a time of comparative peace, and Christians multiplied in every direction. Even upon the general population an impression was by this time made; and the attitude of the mob, in the persecutions of Christians which happened after the middle of the third century, was at first apathetic, then respectful, finally even compassionate. Under Decius, who was an enthusiast for the ancient glories of the republic and empire, the systematic general persecutions began, which aimed at stamping out Christianity altogether. Fabian, the bishop of Rome, and St. Agatha in Sicily, were among the victims of the Decian storm. Fortunately it was short; but when it had passed over, the number of the lapsi, or those who in various degrees had given way under the pressure, was found to be very great. Under Gallus there was peace, but Valerian (257) renewed the persecution. The martyrdoms of St. Lawrence, St. Cyprian, and St. Fructuosus of Tarragona, date from about this time. Again, from 260 (in which year an edict of Gallienus declared Christianity to be a legal religion), to 300, the government left the Christians undisturbed except for a few months (270) under Aurelian. In 303, the terrible persecution of Diocletian was ushered in by the destruction of the great church at Nicomedia. On the next day appeared an edict, ordering that all buildings used for religious worship by the Christians should be destroyed, and that their sacred books should be given up to the authorities and burnt. Christians themselves were declared to be outlawed and civilly dead; they were to have no remedy in the courts against those who did them wrong; and they were to be subject, in every rank, to torture. A second edict ordered that all bishops and priests should be imprisoned; a third, that such prisoners should be compelled by every possible means to offer sacrifice to the gods. The extreme violence of this persecution did not last beyond two years; but in that time the blood of martyrs flowed abundantly in Palestine, Italy, Gaul, Spain, and Britain. A detailed account of the sufferings of the Christians in Palestine may be read in the Ecclesiastical History of Eusebius. For some years after the abdication of Diocletian (305) civil war desolated the empire; but, after the fall of Maxentius, Constantine and Licinius, about the beginning of 313, published the famous edict of Milan, by which complete toleration was given to the Christians, and Christianity was placed on a footing of perfect equality with what had been till now the State religion. This edict was published some months later at Nicomedia, so that both in East and West the period of martyrdom was closed.
The persecution of Julian (361–3)—although martyrdoms were not wanting, e.g. those of SS. John and Paul—consisted rather in a studied exclusion of Christians from the favour of the Court and government, together with a prohibition of teaching rhetoric, literature, and philosophy, than in actual measures of coercion.
For a notice of the prolonged persecution of the Christians in Persia under the Sassanides, see MISSIONS (fourth century).
The cruel persecution of the Catholics in Africa by their Vandal conquerors, under Geiseric (Genseric), Hunneric, and his successors (439–523), was motived partly by the hatred and contempt which these Teutons bore to all of Roman blood or nurture, partly by the inevitable antagonism between the Arian heresy which they professed and the Catholic creed, and partly by the policy of humbling and weakening those whom they could not hope to attach sincerely to their government.
The persecutions of the Spanish Catholics by the Arian Visigothic kings Euric and Leovigild, in the fifth and sixth centuries, were of no great intensity.
PERSON. [See TRINITY.]
PETER’S CHAINS, FEAST OF. From the beginning of the seventh century, and how long before that it is impossible to determine, the festival of St. Peter ad Vincula was celebrated at Rome on August 1. The Greeks keep the corresponding feast on January 16; the Armenians on January 22. One of the lessons in the Roman Breviary for the day relates that the Empress Eudocia, wife of Theodosius the Younger, having obtained during a visit to Jerusalem the chains with which the Apostle had been bound by Herod’s order, and from which he was miraculously set free (Acts 12.), brought them to Constantinople (439), and having deposited one of them in the church of St. Peter in that city, sent the other to Rome as a present to her daughter Eudoxia, who had married Valentinian III. Papebroch the Bollandist, who has a long dissertation on St. Peter’s chains, under date June 29, and Baronius (a. 439), are both inclined to accept this story. There seems no means of fixing the date at which it first found its way into the Breviary.
But, besides these Palestinian chains, a very early tradition knew of other chains borne by St. Peter, those, namely, with which he was bound in the Mamertine prison at Rome during the Neronian persecution. The Acts of Pope Alexander, bishop of Rome, between 121 and 132, are believed by Papebroch to be genuine, and to have been compiled before 250. In these Acts a certain St. Balbina is spoken of as having sought and found the chains of St. Peter, which she gave in charge to Theodora, sister of Hermes, the Præfectus Urbis. These must have been the Neronian chains, for neither tradition nor probability permits the supposition of a transfer of the Palestinian chains to Rome at that remote date.
In a sermon “De Vinculis,” attributed to Beda, it is said that this Pope Alexander instituted a feast on August 1 in honour of St. Peter, and built the church called ad Vincula, in which his chains were wont to be kissed by a devout people. Filings of the chains of St. Peter were from a very early period enclosed by Popes in rings or keys, and sent to friends or correspondents to whom it was desired to show special favour. To this practice, in the opinion of Papebroch, St. Augustine refers when he says that, “deservedly, through all the churches of Christ, the iron of those penal chains is esteemed more precious than gold.”
No Greek writer speaks of the removal of one of the chains to Rome, nor mentions Eudocia in connection with them. There is, however, a Greek oration, extant in MS. in several Italian libraries, on St. Peter’s chains. Though commonly attributed to St. John Chrysostom, it is of uncertain date and authorship; Baronius would assign it to Proclus or Germanus, patriarchs of Constantinople in the seventh century; Papebroch sees no reason why it should not really have been written by Chrysostom. In this oration it is merely stated that the first Christian emperors brought a chain (not chains) from Jerusalem to Constantinople, and placed it in the church of St. Peter.
Two Roman churches at the present day recall the bonds of St. Peter; one, S. Pietro in Vincoli, is on the Esquiline Hill, the other, S. Pietro in Carcere, on the Capitol. In the former is preserved the chain said to have been given to Eudoxia; the latter is on or near the site of the prison in which the Apostle was incarcerated.
The feast of this day was called by the Anglo-Saxons Lammas—i.e., Loaf-Mass; solemn thanksgiving being made on it for the fruits of the earth, and offerings presented.
PETER’S PENCE (denarius S. Petri, Rom-gesceot, Rom-scot). An annual tax of one penny for every house in England, collected at Midsummer, and paid to the Holy See. It was extended to Ireland under the bull granted by Pope Adrian to Henry II. The earliest documentary mention of it seems to be the letter of Canute (1031), sent from Rome to the English clergy and laity. Among the “dues which we owe to God according to ancient law,” the King names “the pennies which we owe to Rome at St. Peter’s” (denarii quos Romœ ad Sanctum Petrum debemus), “whether from towns, or vills.” It may hence be considered certain that the tax was deemed one of ancient standing in the time of Canute, but its exact origin is variously related. West Saxon writers ascribe the honour (for it was regarded as an honour by our forefathers) of its institution to kings of Wessex; Matthew Paris, who represents Mercian traditions, gives it to Offa, king of Mercia. Malmesbury makes Ethelwulf, the father of Alfred, the founder; so that the same king who instituted tithes would on this view have established “Peter’s Pence.” But a writer very little later than Malmesbury—Henry of Huntingdon—attributes the grant to Offa, king of Mercia, who “gave to the Vicar of St. Peter, the Bishop of Rome, a fixed rent for every house in his kingdom for ever.” Matthew Paris, in his “Two Offas” (printed by Wats), gives the Mercian tradition in an expanded form. Offa, visiting Rome in great state, besides other munificent offerings, burdens his kingdom with the “Rom-scot,” which is to be paid to the Roman Church for the support of the English school and hostel at Rome. It was to be one silver penny (argenteus) for every family occupying land worth thirty pence a year. On the other hand, Layamon, the poet (writing about 1209, among West Saxon traditions), ascribes the institution to Ina, a king of Wessex. No certain conclusion can be arrived at; but, on the whole, it seems probable that the “Rom-scot” owed its foundation to Offa, with whose prosperous and successful reign the initiation of the thing would be more in keeping than with the troubled times of Ethelwulf, although the latter may well have consented to extend that which had been before only a Mercian impost to the West Saxon part of his dominions.
The “alms,” sent by Alfred to Pope Marinus, who then “freed” the English school at Rome, were probably nothing more than arrears of Peter’s pence, the receipt of which made it possible for the Pope to free the inhabitants in the English quarter, and the pilgrims resorting to it for hospitality, from all tax and toll. Geoffrey Gaimar2 is responsible for the curious statement, that in consideration of the Peter’s pence (the “dener de la meison”) given by Canute, the Pope made him his legate, and ordered that no Englishman charged with crime should be imprisoned abroad, or exiled, but should “purge himself in his own land.”
It is probable that there was at all times great irregularity in the payment of the Romescot. It is recorded to have been sent to Rome in 1095, by the hands of the Papal nuncio, after an intermission of many years. Again, in 1123, we read of a legate coming into England after the Romescot. From 1534 it ceased to be rendered.
The tribute, or cess, of 1,000 marks (700 for England, 300 for Ireland), which King John bound himself and his heirs to pay to the Roman see, in recognition of the feudal dependence of his kingdom, was of course wholly distinct from the Peter’s pence. After being paid by Henry III. and Edward II., but withheld by Edward I. and Edward III., it was formally claimed with arrears, in 1366, by Urban V.
The Peter’s Pence of modern days is a voluntary contribution made by the faithful, and taken up under the direction of their bishop, for the maintenance of the Sovereign Pontiff.
PETROBRUSIANS. An heretical sect of the twelfth century; the leaders of which, Peter de Bruys and Henricus, in so far as they attacked the hierarchy and preached simplicity of life, may be regarded as the forerunners of Arnold of Breseia. A letter of Peter the Venerable, abbot of Cluny, is the chief source of information respecting them. Bruys propagated his opinions in Languedoc in the first twenty years of the twelfth century; he perished at the stake, through a movement of popular exasperation, in 1124. Henricus (who may perhaps be identified with the “Henricus hæreticus” mentioned by Matthew Paris under the year 1151), after a long career of success, partly in Maine, but chiefly in Southern France, was tried at the council held at Rheims, by Eugenius III., in 1148, and sentenced to perpetual imprisonment. He died in the following year. The following abstract of the Petrobrusian tenets is given by a Protestant writer: “They were strongly opposed to infant baptism, saying that you could wash a young child’s skin, but you could not cleanse his mind at that early age. They objected to the building and using of churches, declaring that God could hear us whether we prayed in a tavern or a church, in a market-place or in a temple, before an altar or before a stall. They maintained that crosses, instead of being held in reverence, should be destroyed and cast away; that the instrument by which Christ had suffered such agonies ought not to be made an object of veneration, but of execration. They denied the Real Presence in the Eucharist. Prayers and Masses for the dead they utterly ridiculed, and said that God was insulted by church singing; as He took pleasure only in holy affections, shrill voices and musical strains could neither win nor appease Him.”
PHILOSOPHY. We are compelled from want of space to forego any attempt at a history of philosophy as pursued within the Church, and must confine ourselves to the accepted definition of philosophy, a brief sketch of its development, and a few words on its relation to faith. There was really no systematic philosophy in the Church till the twelfth and thirteenth centuries, when the physical and metaphysical works of Aristotle became known in translations. Some of the Fathers condemned philosophy altogether (so, e.g., Irenæus, “Adv. Hær.” ii. 14, 2; ii. 25, 5; ii. 14, 5; Tertullian, “Præscr.” 7; the author of the “Philosophumena,” vii. 19). Tatian and Hermias, among the Apologists, are equally bitter. Theophilus (“Ad Autol.” ii. 8, 12; iii. 3, 7, 17) qualifies blame with faint praise. St. Athanasius professes his ignorance of a common philosophical term, and Basil his dislike of philosophy in general (see Newman’s note in the “Oxford Athanasius,” p. 52). Aristotle was regarded with special aversion (Iren. ii. 14, 5; Tertull. “Præscr.” 7; “Philosophum.” vii. 19). Others found in the heathen philosophers an acknowledgment of Christian mysteries, and looked on philosophy as a preparation for Christ (so Justin, of the Stoics and Heraclitus, “Ap.” 2, 8; of Socrates, ib. 10; Clem. Al. “Strom.” i. 5, p. 331, 333; with reference to Plato, v. 13, p. 696; vi. 15, p. 802; v. 13, p. 697; v. 14, p. 714; Origen, e.g. “C. Cels.” vi. 8, where he quotes a spurious passage of Plato to show that he knew the “Son of God”). Now, both these views, in spite of their opposition to each other, agree in this, that they conceive of philosophy as external to Christianity. To Clement and those who think with him, philosophy is a friendly power which, partly from the “light which lightens every man,” partly by borrowing from the Hebrew Scriptures, leads men to Christ; to Irenæus and others it is a dangerous rival of the Church. The views are not really far apart, and the adherents of neither ever reached the scholastic theory that philosophy and theology are two independent sciences, each of which has a province of its own; Augustine, even, has no formal and complete system of philosophy; and though at the close of the patristic period logic was zealously cultivated, a philosophy in the strict sense had not begun to be. In the latter part of the eleventh century speculations on the nature of universal ideas began to excite attention in the Church, though the dispute was conducted in great measure with reference to the mysteries of the Trinity and Incarnation, so that it was half-theological, half-philosophical. Roscelin, canon of Compiègne (about 1089), propounded the Nominalist view that universals are mere abstractions from individual things; he was a Tritheist in theology, was condemned at Soissons in 1092, and opposed by the Realists William of Champeaux (d. 1121) and Anselm of Canterbury (d. 1109). Up to this time only a few of Aristotle’s logical works were known in the West (“Categ.” “De Interpret.” besides Porphyry’s “Isagoge”; after 1128, Aristotle’s “Analytica” and “Topica”). About 1200, translations of Aristotle’s metaphysical and physical writings appeared, and the influence of the great Arabic commentators on Aristotle (Avicenna, b. 980; the Pantheist Averroes, 1113–1198) began to tell. These metaphysical studies met with great opposition. A council of Paris in 1210 ordered Aristotle’s metaphysical works to be burnt (Fleury, “H. E.” lxxvii. 59); and the Papal legate, Robert of Courçon, in 1215 forbade the use of Aristotle’s physical or metaphysical works, and this by order of Pope Innocent III. (Fleury, lxxvii. 39). This decree was modified by Gregory IX., and practically abrogated by Urban V., and soon the Aristotelian philosophy became supreme in the West. The Franciscan Alexander of Hales, born in Gloucestershire (d. 1245), was the first scholastic who was acquainted with all the works of Aristotle and knew something of the Arabian commentators. Albert the Great (1193–1280), St. Thomas of Aquin (1225 or 7–1274), Duns Scotus (d. 1308), differing as they did on many points, philosophical and theological, were all Aristotelians. All distinguished between the provinces of faith and reason, accepted the decisions of the Church as supreme in the former, and followed Aristotle as the great representative of human reason. A much freer position with respect to Aristotle was maintained by the later Nominalists. The first great leader of this school was the Franciscan Occam (provincial in England, theologian to Louis of Bavaria, d. 1347), who abandoned the Scotism of his order. He was followed by some Dominicans—e.g. by the Englishman Robert Holcott, by the great Frenchmen Peter d’Ailly and Gerson (d. 1429), and by Gabriel Biel (d. 1495), the last great Nominalist. The Aristotelian philosophy, on the whole, held its own within the Church till the time of Descartes. Jesuits like Suarez choose, indeed, between St. Thomas and Scotus, but they are professed Aristotelians.
To the Scholastics generally philosophy is the “science of things through their ultimate causes, so far as such science is attainable by the light of nature.” We say by “ultimate causes,” for, whereas lower sciences, such as mechanics, chemistry, &c., borrow principles from other sciences, philosophy borrows from no other science: it considers “being as being,” the nature of things in their widest aspect. It either deals with “being” in itself or with “being” as the object of and as ordered by reasoning, or with “being” as the object of and ordered by the will. The two latter classes (ens rationale and morale) are the subject-matter of two subdivisions of philosophy—viz. of logic and ethics. “Being” in itself—i.e. as ordered by God—may be considered as liable to sensible motion, and then it is the subject-matter of physics; or, again, we may consider “being” like that of God or the angels, which is superior to such motion, or, in our consideration of “being,” abstract from sensible motion, then we get metaphysics (so Goudin, “Philosophia D. Thomæ”). Logic, metaphysics, physics, and ethics, therefore, are the four subdivisions of philosophy, psychology being merely a branch of physics. Next, philosophy reasons only from the light of nature, and has no direct connection with revelation. It proves, e.g., the “being” of God, which can be done from his works; it does not investigate the doctrine of the Trinity, which is wholly beyond reason. Hence the marked difference between the scholastic philosophy and many modern systems, which latter claim to be a substitute for revelation, and to give, in the form of reason, that, so far as it is reasonable, which the un-instructed believe. Further, the scholastics taught that philosophy is the handmaid of faith: first, because it prepares the way for faith by establishing, e.g., the spiritual nature of the soul, the existence of God, &c.; next, because, though it cannot prove revealed truths, it can show that they are not evidently contrary to reason; thirdly, because, whenever the provinces of philosophy and theology touch, the philosopher must, if need arise, correct his conclusions by the higher and more certain truth of faith. It is a scholastic axiom that nothing can be true in philosophy which is false in theology. Observe, the Church does not teach philosophy; that is not her province. She merely declares a philosophy which rejects, e.g., the primary truths of morals or religion, to be false. The correction of the false reasoning she leaves, and must leave, to others.
After Descartes there was an increasing defection from scholastic philosophy among Catholics. The philosophy of Malebranche (d. 1715), bitterly opposed as it was by Bossuet (“Lettre 171, à un Disciple du P. Malebranche”), became very popular in France. The representatives of other Catholic schools of philosophy among Catholics hold a far lower place in the history of speculation. Such, during this century, were the Ontologists and Traditionalists in France; Hermes, Baader, Günther in Germany. Their systems were condemned on theological grounds by ecclesiastical authority, and are now all but forgotten. On the other hand, the philosophical works of Rosmini (1797–1855) and the Spanish priest Balmes still enjoy high repute.
A great revival of the Scholastic, or rather of the Thomist, philosophy began some thirty years ago. Protestants themselves showed a more generous appreciation of the Schoolmen, and Catholics reverted to their teaching, partly from impatience at the instability of modern systems, partly because of the close connection between the Scholastic philosophy and the language used in the definitions of the later Church, partly because of the security felt in adopting a philosophy which was in proved harmony with Catholic doctrine. The philosophical works of Liberatore and Sanseverino are perhaps the best known among those of the “New Scholastics;” and a man of much higher ability, the Jesuit F. Kleutgen (“Philosophie der Vorzeit,” 1860), has written an elaborate defence of Thomist principles. The Thomist philosophy is now taught in almost every seminary, and the present Pope, in the Encyclical “Æterni Patris,” has approved and urged the teaching of the philosophy of St. Thomas. It must be remembered, however, that Rosmini’s works were recently declared, “after a most rigorous examination,” free from all censure. Again, the physics of the Schoolmen, which no one thinks of defending, are yet an integral part of their philosophy. And, however high St. Thomas may rank as a philosopher, it is none the less true that a person who accepts his theories because they are his, thereby renounces the study of philosophy altogether and confuses the methods of philosophy with those of faith. It is fair to say that Kleutgen is very far from such unreasonable exaggeration, and the late Dr. Ward confesses himself utterly unable to understand the reasoning of persons who speak as if the most intellectually dutiful sons of the Church were those who accept every “philosophical proposition current among the Scholastics” (“Essays on the Church’s Doctrinal. Authority,” p. 541) (The best account of the history of the Scholastic philosophy will be found in Ueberweg’s “History of Philosophy.” It has been translated.)
PHOTINUS. A disciple of Marcellus of Ancyra and bishop of Sirmium, in Pannonia. He began to teach his heresy as early at least as 344, when he was condemned by an Antiochene synod. He distinguished between the Word and the Son. The former, in the strict sense (the λόγος ἀνώτατος), was not a Person, but the immanent reason of God. The Holy Ghost was merely the energy of God, and Christ no more than a man born miraculously of a virgin (so Hefele, “Concil.” i. p. 635; but this is not certain), who could be called “Son” only in an improper sense, because the Word of God wrought in Him with special power. His opinions were very much those of modern Socinians, and for this reason Petavius speaks of the latter as “Photiniani.” Photinus was condemned both by Semi-Arians and Catholics, but there has been great difference of opinion among Catholic scholars as to the number and dates of the synods which condemned him. Petavius and Sirmond disputed at length on the matter. Some account of the controversy will be found in Hefele (“Concil.” vol. i p. 634 seq.). Photinianism was rejected as a heresy in the General Council at Constantinople in 381.
PHOTIUS. [See GREEK CHURCH.]
PIARISTS. By this name are known the regular clerks of the Scuole Pie (religious schools), an institute of secondary education founded at Rome by St. Joseph Calasanctius in the last years of the sixteenth century. This foundation was sanctioned as a congregation under simple vows by Paul V. in 1617, and as a religious order four years later by Gregory XV. The first children taught in the schools were collected from the streets, and the founder was content, after their religious education had been well provided for, to have them instructed in reading and writing only; but by degrees the programme was extended until, besides all the subjects of a good modern education, it embraced Latin and Greek and philosophy. Houses of the order were soon planted in various Italian towns, and in 1631 the Cardinal Bishop of Olmütz introduced the Fathers into Moravia. Alexander VII. in 1656 insisted that they should return to the status under which they could only take simple vows; but, thirteen years later, Clement IX. reinstated them in the full privileges of a religious order. The Piarists appear to have never entered France or Great Britain, or any country outside the limits of Europe. The chief centres of their activity have been, and are, Italy, Austria-Hungary, and Spain. About 1870 they numbered some 2,000 religious. (Hélyot; Wetzer and Welte.)
PICPUS, CONGREGATION OF. A deacon in the seminary of Poitiers, Pierre Coudrin by name, when the infidel government of France dispersed (1792) all students under training in the episcopal seminaries, resolving not to be false to his vocation, and hearing that the Bishop of Clermont was in hiding somewhere in Paris, went there, found him out, and received priest is orders at his hands. During the ten years of persecution which followed, Coudrin, who was of course one of the prétres non assermentés, exercised his ministry in the midst of danger, hardship, and poverty, in the dioceses of Poitiers and Tours. Gradually he matured the plan of a new congregation which, while protesting in the most direct way against the prevalent unbelief by maintaining the Perpetual Adoration of the Blessed Sacrament, should undertake the preparation of candidates for the priesthood, and also the work of preaching the Gospel to the heathen. The Bishop of Mende, whose household he entered, sympathised in his projects and aided him to realise them. With the bishop’s help Coudrin instituted (1805) his congregation in the buildings known as of Picpus, in the Faubourg St. Antoine, Paris. The approbation of the Holy See was given in 1817. Seminaries in various parts of France were confided to the Fathers of Picpus; and in 1825 the third fundamental aim of the institute began to be realised, when Leo XII. sent six of its members to preach the faith in the islands of the Pacific. From that time the missionary activity of the congregation has gone on with an ever-increasing development, chiefly in the regions of South America, Australasia, and Oceania. The history of the earlier congregation of Picpus, a reform of the third order of St. Francis founded by Vincent Mussart at Franconville in 1594, is given at considerable length by Hélyot, who was himself a member of it.
PILGRIM, PILGRIMAGE (peregrinus, peregrinatio; It. pellegrino; Fr. pèlerin.) The well-known line, “cœlum non animum mutant, qui trans mare currunt,” contains but a half-truth for universal experience attests the stimulating, recreative, and enlightening power which mere change of scene often exerts on the mind of man. These effects are likely to be enhanced when the change has a moral motive. “Movemur enim,” says Cicero, “nescio quo pacto locis ipsis in quibus eorum, quos diligimus aut admiramur, adsunt vestigia” (we are inly stirred by the very spots where the traces exist of those whom we love and admire).
The pilgrimages of the Jews to Jerusalem at the time of the great festivals were matter of precept and obligation. The pilgrimages to Pagan shrines (of Jupiter Tyrius, or Melcarth, at Gades, of Jupiter Capitolinus at Rome, of Apollo at Delphi, Diana at Ephesus, &c.), and those flockings of innumerable worshippers to shrines of Rama and Crishna which take place in our own day, usually proceed on the assumption that the power of the divinity whose help is sought is locally circumscribed, but that within the limits of his own jurisdiction it is indefinitely great. The Christian creed, according to which “God is a spirit,” to be sought and found not specially “on this mountain, nor yet at Jerusalem,” but wherever the true worshippers approach Him in spirit and in truth, might seem at first sight to afford little encouragement to pilgrimages. For, as St. Jerome says—and other Fathers hold similar language—Christians “dare not confine the omnipotence of God to one narrow corner of the world.… From Jerusalem and from Britain the court of heaven is equally open.” Nevertheless, so certain is it that religious impressions, blunted and weakened by the daily business of the market-place and the street, require in most minds to be often graven afresh (and that by means of impulses coming from without, for it would be vain to trust to the sufficiency of those coming from within), that the Church has from the first—while admitting the danger of abuses, and taking measures to prevent them—approved the use of pilgrimage to holy places as a very potent help and incentive to a devout life. She also favours the practice, because she recognises the undoubted fact, that God has often granted, and still grants, interior and exterior favours, graces, and miracles, at particular places or shrines, to honour certain mysteries, saints, &c.
A Protestant writer in the “Dictionary of Christian Antiquities” (Smith and Cheetham) has collected with praiseworthy industry a multitude of facts bearing on the conditions under which pilgrimages were made in the first eight centuries. It would appear from the letters of Paula and Eustochium (included among those of St. Jerome), that from the date of the Ascension to their own day a continued stream of pilgrims had resorted to the Holy Places. The first, recorded pilgrim is St. Alexander (third cent.), who is said to have visited Jerusalem in fulfilment of a vow. Of the devout journey of Helena, the mother of Constantine, whose faith and zeal are said to have been rewarded by the discovery of the true cross, we have a full relation from the pen of Eusebius. The French bishop Arculfus visited Jerusalem in the seventh century, and after his return told his story to Adamnan, abbot of Iona, who embodied the narrative in his tract, “De Locis Sanctis.” In the eleventh century, Palestine having fallen into the hands of the Seljukian Turks, Christian pilgrims were subjected to many indignities, the report of which in Europe led eventually to the first Crusade.
The usual motives for a pilgrimage were: (1) the desire to realise the objects of faith and quicken religious feeling in the soul; (2) the fulfilment of a vow; (3) some special benefit—as when Chaucer’s pilgrims went to Canterbury—

The holy blissful martir for to seke,
That hem hath holpen whan that thei were seke;

(4) the execution of some penitential task, whether self-imposed or enjoined by the clergy.
The more celebrated shrines, towards which the currents of pilgrimage have set strongly, are: (1) those of our Lord, in other words, the Holy Places in Palestine; (2) those of the Blessed Virgin; (3) those of angels and saints. Among the sanctuaries of our Lady, which have been, or are, thronged by the resort of pilgrims, may be mentioned Walsingham (on the pilgrimage to which Erasmus wrote a tract), Einsiedeln in Switzerland, Chartres and Fourvières in France, Maria Zell in Germany, Loreto in Italy, and Guadaloupe and Montserrat in Spain. The grotto of Lourdes, since the event of 1858, has become the centre of attraction to an immense concourse of pilgrims. Among the sanctuaries of angels and saints may be named the “limina Apostolorum,” or the tombs of SS. Peter and Paul on the Vatican hill, the church of St. Michael on Monte Gargano (the devotion of Norman pilgrims to which led to the Norman conquest of Naples), and the shrine of the English St. Thomas of Canterbury, a pilgrimage to which is the apt setting of the well-known “Tales” of Chaucer.
PISA, COUNCIL OF. Gregory XII. (Angelo Corrario) had been elected Pope in 1406, the Antipope Benedict XIII. (Peter de Luna) in 1395, and Europe was divided between the two “obediences.” After much negotiation, both Gregory and Benedict were induced to promise to adopt the way of cession, in pursuance of which each would have withdrawn his claim to the pontificate. But misunderstandings arose, and the promises were not kept. The schism had now lasted thirty years, producing confusion and bewilderment throughout the Christian world. The leading cardinals on both sides, in view of this disastrous state of things, met together, and agreed, since no other way of restoring unity seemed feasible, to ignore the claims of both rivals, and themselves summon a general council, to meet at Pisa on March 25, 1409. The Council met on the day appointed; its twenty-third and last session was held on August 7 following. From first to last, twenty-four cardinals, four patriarchs, eighty bishops, a hundred and two proctors of bishops, eighty-seven abbots, two hundred delegates of abbots, besides a great number of generals of orders, doctors, deputies of universities, and ambassadors, attended the council. Within little more than four months the synod finished the business for which it was convened. It first cited the rival claimants to appear; on their failing to do so, it declared itself to be the lawful representative of the Universal Church, and to have power to judge all pontifical pretensions; it decreed that all Christians ought to withdraw their obedience both from Gregory and Benedict; it entertained an act of accusation against them; after hearing evidence, it pronounced the sentence of deposition against them both, and declared the Holy See to be vacant; it rejected the claim of Robert, Gregory’s supporter to the imperial throne, and recognised Wenzel; lastly, it arranged for the holding of a conclave from which Card. Philargi came forth as Pope, and took the name of Alexander V.
Hefele says of this council, “Neither ecclesiastical authority nor the most trustworthy theologians have ever numbered it among the œcumenical councils.” (“Conc.” Introd.) Its unfortunate issue (Gregory and Benedict both refusing to yield, and there being thus three claimants for the papacy, down to the time of the Council of Constance) he attributes partly to the perversity of the temporal princes, but chiefly to the council itself; to the erroneous theory on which they based the deposition of Gregory XII. and Benedict XIII.—viz. that by their conduct they were heretical against the article “Unam Sanctam Cath. Ecclesiam”—a theory which no one believed in, and again to their violence and precipitation in resorting to extreme measures. (“Conciliengesch.” vi. 901.)
Nevertheless Bellarmin calls it a General Council, and looks upon it as “neither clearly approved nor clearly rejected.” Not the former; for Martin V. would not absolutely call Alexander V. Pope, though recognising the validity of some of his acts; and St. Antoninus will not allow that either he or his successor was a true Pope. Not the latter; for many good theologians (e.g. Natalis Alexander, Raynaldus, and Ballerini) affirm that both the Council and the Pope whom it created were legitimate; nor would Alexander VI. have taken that title if it had been generally believed that Alexander V. was no true Pope. So far from that, “it may almost be called the common opinion,” proceeds Bellarmin, “that both Alexander and John his successor were true Popes.”
An English prelate, Robert Hallam, bishop of Salisbury, acted a conspicuous part in the proceedings at Pisa. [ANTIPOPES in Appendix.] (Wetzer and Welte, art. by Hefele.)
PISTOIA, SYNOD OF. Leopold, grand duke of Tuscany and brother of the Emperor Joseph II. began in 1780 to introduce many changes in the discipline, worship, &c., of the Tuscan Church. In 1782 he suppressed the Inquisition and he also interfered in doctrinal matters, recommended the “doctrine of St. Augustine” and the Biblical commentary of the learned Jansenist Quesnel. His chosen ally was Scipio Ricci, bishop of Pistoia and Prato, formerly vicar-general to Incontri, archbishop of Florence. In 1786 Leopold laid before the Episcopate of the Duchy fifty-seven articles for the “reform of the Church” in the Jansenist and Febronian sense. Only three bishops, of whom Ricci was one, accepted them. That same year (September 18), the Synod of Pistoia met. Tamburini was the promotor and 234 priests were present. The Jansenist doctrines on grace were approved But besides this the principles of a spiritual democracy were asserted. God, it was said, had given power to the Church, and it was the Church which communicated it to the pastors, including even the Pope. Bishops were to be practically independent of the Pope, the priests in diocesan synods were to be judges of faith and discipline, &c., &c. Lastly, a multitude of decrees were passed condemning practices common in the Church—e.g. devotion to the Sacred Heart, missions, use of Latin in the Mass, the influence of Scholastic theology, multiplication of religious orders, feasts, &c., &c.
The destruction of altars, images, &c., under Ricci’s direction, set the Tuscan populace in an uproar: they stormed his palace in 1787, and he had to resign his see. The bishops, with scarcely an exception, were firmly opposed to the Pistoian decrees, from which eighty-five propositions were condemned by Pius VI. in the bull “Auctorem fidei” of 1794. Solari, bishop of Noli, in the Genoese territory, was the only prelate found publicly to oppose the bull. Ricci himself in 1805 made a recantation, and was reconciled to Pius VII., though it appears from the bishop’s letters that his sentiments were not really changed. Solari joined himself to the Constitutional bishops in France. (From Cardinal Hergenröther’s “Kirchengeschichte,” &c. The acts of the synod were printed at Pistoia, also Ticini 1789, Laibach 1791, Bamberg 1790. The “Auctorem fidei” may be read in Denzinger’s “Enchiridion.” Gelli edited the “Memorie” of Ricci “with documents,” Florence, 1865.)

Addis, W. E., & Arnold, T. (1887). In A Catholic Dictionary (Sixth Edition, With Additions, S. 644–664). New York: The Catholic Publication Society Co.

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Von UWE ROSENKRANZ

CV of Archbishop Dr. Uwe Alfred Erich Rosenkranz, MA,DD.

Born Pentecoast Sunday 1960 as first son of Ernst-August Otto Gustav Emil Rosenkranz und Angret Hedwig Rosenkranz.
Brother Bernd Rosenkranz, Sister Kerstin Rosenkranz
 married since 1998 with Elke Christa Rosenkranz
School: Groundschool Mönchengladbach-Hardt 1966-1970
Gymnasium Math.Nat.Gymn. MG 1970 - 1979 -Abitur
Apprentice: Dresdner Bank MG, 1979-1982 - Bankkaufmann (Banker)
Studies: University of Bonn, Germany, Agrarwissenschaft (Agrar Sience), Organischer Landbau (Organic Farming)
1982 - 1992 - Diploma- Bachelor
ALANUS Highschool of Arts and social leadership 1983 - 1990 - Profect leader
Bio-Seal EU2000 
Bioseal globally (IFOAM) 2010
Sales Engineer Minister Highschool- 2000-2001
Global University/ICI/Berean 2000 - 2010
Religious Education , Second BA
Perpetual Incardination as Priest (Reverend) at Rosary Center, Portland, Oregon, USA -2009
Inauguration as Bishop (Bischof) RMI Rosary Ministries International 2009
accredited and embedded as Archbishop at AIIC-Dioceses 2012
Granted Master of economical and social affairs, MSCS, UN-DESA 2014
D.D. Doctor Divinae 2015, MSCS, WAHOD (WORLD ASSOCIATION HUMANITARIAN OF Doctors)
granted Dr. economics/socionomics at UN-DESA United Nations Department of Economical and Social Affairs 2016,
President of MSCS with IGO status at UNECOSOC and UNDESA
Climate fund 200 Millions at UNFCCC, Bonn, Germany, founder of ROSARY Holding (i.G.)
Knight Templaar at Knights Templaar International, Roselyn, UK. 

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